Shaka and Kushan period saw the use of better cavalry. The use of reins and saddles were introduced by Shakas and Kushans. Besides, Shakas and Kushans introduced tunic, turban and trousers and heavy long coat. Cap, helmet and boots were also introduced during this phase which facilitated the victories in war. Central area was opened to trade with routes through sea and valleys. One of these routes becomes famous as the old silk route.
Sunga Dynasty spanned from 185 BC to 73 BC and Kanva Dynasty spanned from 73 BC to 28 BC. The capital of Sunga Dynasty was Vidisha (MP) and the capital of Kanva Dynasty was Patliputra. In ancient India, there was a famous Kshatriya race known as the Chedi. The Chedi people were prominently mentioned in Brahmanic, Buddhist and Jaina literature. Chedi Dynasty was one of the 16 Mahajanapadas which existed in sixth century BC.
Many powerful empires arose in north India and the Deccan between 750-1000 AD. The Palas, the Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas were the most prominent.The Rashtrakuta Empire lasted the longest and was also the most powerful of its times. Pala Dynasty was founded by Gopala in 750 AD, who was a chieftain earlier but later became the king of Bengal. In fact, he was the first Buddhist king of Bengal. He had established his dominance after Gauda Dynasty lost their stronghold in Kamarupa.
Kanishka was the most powerful ruler of the Kushana Empire. The capital of his empire was Purushpura (Peshawar). Under his rule, Kushana Empire extended from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan to Mathura and Kashmir. Kanishka was the successor of Vima Kadphises, as demonstrated by an impressive genealogy of the Kushan kings, known as the Rabatak inscription.