After the victory of Babur in the war of Panipat in 1526, the Mughal dynasty was established. The rule of Mughal Dynasty from the 16th to 18th century extensively displays art forms, architectural styles that developed vigorously around that time.
The mughal empire was divided into "Subas" which were further subdivided into "Sarkar","Pargana", and "Gram". There were 15 Subas (provinces) durng Akbar's reigns, which later increased to 20 under the Auranzeb's reign.
Timur, better known as, Taimur was given the title of ‘Taimur Lang’, because his one leg got wound in the battlefield and compelled the Taimur to walk with a limp. Taimur was an invader from Central Asia who dreamt of becoming the famous conquerors of the world.
The full name of Ibn Battuta was Muhammad Ibn Battuta (a Moroccan Muslim voyage). He was born on February 25, 1304 in medieval era in Islamic family. By profession he was a Geographer, Jurist, Judge and an Explorer. Ibn Battuta left out an exclusive note on Tughlaq dynasty.
Under the Delhi Sultanate the Economic condition of India flourished. In fact enormous wealth tempted Mahmud of Ghazni to invade India 17 times. Malik Kafur, during the reign of Ala- ud- din Khilji, in 1311. The market arrangement of alauddin was superb.
Sikandar Lodi, whose real name was Nizam Khan, rose the throne of Delhi in 1489 A.D. and administered up to 1517 A.D. He was the second ruler of Lodhi dynasty. Sikandar Lodi was the child of first Lodhi king, Bahlul Lodi. After the passing of Bahlul Lodi, he turned into the Sultan of Delhi Sultanate.
Timur’s deputy khizr khan was the founder of Sayyid Dynasty. Khizr khan was the first ruler of Sayyid dynasty. He rules delhi from 1414 to 1421 AD. The name of other rulers of this dynasty are Mubarak khan,( who succeeded khizr khan), Muhammad shah (1434-43), and the last king was Alam shah (1443-51 AD).
The onset of sultanate period witnessed no definite laws of succession. Internal civil wars were breaking the country into smaller cities. After the death of each Sultan, the situation gave rise to many civil wars. To put a feather to the cap, the invasion of Timur and Babur became the main cause for the downfall of Delhi sultanate. This decline of empire bought into existence many small states in different parts of the country.
The Tughlaq administration, also called as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim line of Turky which managed over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India. Its rule began in 1320 in Delhi. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq was the first ruler of this dynasty. Khusrau Khan, the last ruler of the Khilji administration was executed by Ghazni Malik.
Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah Khilji was the child of Ala-ud-din Khilji. He escaped from the clutch of Malik Kafur, and turned into the third Sultan of Delhi. He was the 3rd and the last ruler of Khilji Dynasty. In 1320, he was killed by one of his reliable person Khusro Khan.
Ghiyasud-din Tughlaq was the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty. He repulsed the Mongol trespassers many times. He murdered Khurso Khan, and turned into the Sultan. His great achievement was the re-established the food laws of Ala-ud-Din.
Firoz Shah Tuglaq was a Turkish leader who was born in 1309 and was in power in Delhi from 1351 to 1388. He was the child of a Hindu princess of Dipalpur. His dad's name was Rajab who was younger sibling of Ghazi Malik who carried the title of Sipahsalar.
Administration during the Delhi Sultanate was based on the laws of the Shariat or the laws of Islam. Political, legal and military authority was vested in the Sultan. Thus military strength was the main factor in succession of throne. Administrative units were, Iqta, Shiq, Paraganaa and Gram.
The Lodi Dynasty was established by Bahlol Lodhi in 1451. Bad economic conditions and fast draining treasuries due to continuous wars of succession along with regular invasions by Timur weakened the military capabilities and weakened the lodhi dynasty.
The Lodi Dynasty was established by Bahlol Lodhi in 1451. He captured the throne of Delhi on April 19th 1451 with the title of “Bahlul Shah Ghazi”. His accession marked the suppression of Sayyad dynasty. Bahlul Lodhi died in Delhi on July 12th 1489 and was succeeded by his son Sikander lodhi.
Iltutmish nominated his daughter Razia for the throne of delhi by overtaking his son Ruknudddin Firoz. Razia Sultan was born in year 1205 and ruled the country from 1236-1240. Razia Sultan was the first Muslim woman who captured the throne of Delhi. The nobles of delhi did not like Razia as Sultan of delhi and conspired against her.
Alauddin's administrative policy was very concise and clear. He introduced the ‘Dagh system’ (branding of horse) and ‘Chehra’ for soldiers. He appointed ‘Mustakhraj’ for the purpose of collection of revenue. The check on markets kept by two officers ‘Diwan-i- Riyasat and Shahna –i-Mandi’.
The founder of Khilji Dynasty was Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji. He killed the last descendent of Slave Dynasty ( Kaikubad-The grandson of Alauddin Khilji) and declared himself the sultan of Delhi sultanate at the age of 70 years in 1290 AD.
Mahmud Ghazni commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni , who ruled Ghazni from 971 to 1030 AD. So to plunder the wealth of India he made very first attack in 1001. He attacked India 17 times on India. He made his 16th attack on the Somnath temple in 1025 just to plunder the gold.