The Environment is our basic life support system which provides the air for breathing, the water for drinking, the food for eating and the land for a living. It is collectively portrayed all the external forces and conditions, which influences the life, nature, growth and maturity of living organism, whereas ‘Ecology’ is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment.
Hydraulic fracturing is the propagation of fractures in a rock layer, by a pressurized fluid. Some hydraulic fractures form naturally—certain veins or dikes are examples—and can create conduits along which gas and petroleum from source rocks may migrate to reservoir rocks. Induced hydraulic fracturing or hydro fracturing, commonly known as fracking, is a technique used to release petroleum, natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal seam gas), or other substances for extraction.
India is signatory to several major international conventions relating to conservation and management of wildlife. Some of these are Convention on Biological Diversity, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) etc.
India is one among the 17 mega diverse countries of the world. But many plants and animals are facing threat of extinction. To protect the critically endangered and other threatened animal and plant species, Government of India has adopted many steps, laws and policy initiatives.
‘Biological diversity’ or biodiversity is that part of nature which includes the differences in genes among the individuals of a species, the variety and richness of all the plants and animal species at different scales in space, locally, in a region, in the country and the world, and various types of ecosystems, both terrestrial and aquatic, within a defined area.
The ecosystem functions through several biogeochemical cycles and energy transfer mechanisms. Observe and document the components of the ecosystem which consists of its Non-Living or Abiotic features such as air, water, climate and soil. Its biotic components are the various plants and animals. Both these aspects of the ecosystem interact with each other through several functional aspects to form Nature’s ecosystems.
Nature has endowed India with a rich biological diversity, which includes over 40,000 species of plants and 75000 species of animals. India has about 12% of the global plant wealth amongst which there are nearly 3,000 tree species. There are around 15,000 flowering plant species in India. There are over 3000 medicinal plants in India. This list represents a 1000-odd plants which have been classified as traded medicinal plants according to the ENVIS database.
Agriculture, forestry and fisheries products, stable natural hydrological cycles, fertile soils, a balanced climate and numerous other vital ecosystem services depend upon the conservation of biological diversity. Food production relies on biodiversity for a variety of food plants, pollination, pest control, nutrient provision, genetic diversity, and disease prevention and control. Both medicinal plants and manufactured pharmaceuticals rely on biodiversity.
An Ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (Weather, Earth, Sun, Soil, Climate, Atmosphere).