The British Government had set up a committee under Sir Alexander Muddinman to meet the demand of the Indian Leaders and in view of the resolution adopted by Swaraj Party in early 1920s.It also recommended the appointment of a Royal Commission.
Education policy of the British: In pre-British days, Hindus and Muslims were educated through Pathsala and Madrassa respectively, but their advent created a new place of learning i.e. Missionaries. So that, they can create a class of Indian who would be “Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste” who would act as interpreters between the Government and the masses.
The Indian states committee appointed a committee under the Chairmanship of Sir Harcourt Butler which was popularly known as ‘the Butler Committee’ to investigate and clarify the relationship between the paramount power and the Princely States in AD 1927.
The Quit India Movement was launched by MK Gandhi after Cripps departure, for British withdrawal and a non-violent non-cooperation movement against any Japanese invasion which was popularly known as ‘Quit India Movement’. Here, we are giving the list of Personalities Associated with Quit India Movement during British India, which helps the readers to enhance their knowledge about India’s freedom fighters.
The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi when British Government not given positive response on Gandhi’s eleven demands. Hence, Mahatma Gandhi had decided to make salt the central formula for Civil Disobedience Movement. This movement was injected with the ideology of disobeying laws, demands and commands of the Government. Here, we are giving the list personalities who were associated with Civil Disobedience movement of British India.
On June 3, 1947, Lord Mountbatten put forward his plan which outlined the steps for the solution of India’s political problem. The main purpose of the Mountbatten Plan was the partition of India and the speedy transfer of responsibility, initially in the form of Dominion Status.
The Constituent Assembly was set up under the cabinet Mission plan on 16th May 1946. The members of the Provincial assemblies were elected by the method of single transferable vote system of proportional representations.
On 2nd September 1946, the newly-elected Constituent Assembly formed interim government of India which existed till 15th August 1947. The executive branch of the interim government was served by the viceroy’s executive council ,headed by the Viceroy of India.Since colonial rule it was for the first time that the Government of India was in Indian's hand.
On 22nd January 1946, the decision to send Cabinet Mission was taken and on 19th February 1946, the British PM C.R Attlee Government announced in the House of Lords about the mission and the plan to quit India.
Lord Wavell broadcast to the people of India the proposals of the British Government to resolve the deadlock in India on 14th June which is called Wavell Plan. It was constituted to resolve the political deadlock of existing India but due to disagreement between leaders of Muslim League and Congress,finally the proposals were dissolved at the Shimla Conference.
Desai being the leader of the Congress in the Central Assembly gave proposal to Liaquat Ali for the formation of Interim Government at centre. Desai- Liaquat Proposals was attempt to appease the league leaders and find a way out of the 1942-45 political deadlocks.
The objectives of Rajagopalachari Formula were to bridges between the Muslims League and Indian National Congress arises due to the difference of opinion on two nation theory and independence of India from British. C. Rajagopalachari was the veteran Congress leader, made a formula for the Indian National Congress and Muslim League cooperation to write off the political deadlock. Formula was supported by M.K Gandhi which was in reality, a silent acceptance of the League’s demand for Pakistan.
An important development in the struggle for freedom during the Second World War was the formation and activities of the Azad Hind Fauj, also known as the Indian National Army, or INA. Rash Behari Bose, an Indian revolutionary who had escaped from India and had been living in Japan for many years, set up the Indian independence league with the support of Indians living in the countries of south-east Asia.
In April 1942, the Cripps mission failed. Within less than four months, the third great mass struggle of the Indian people for freedom started. This struggle is known as the Quit India movement. On 8 August 1942, The All India Congress Committee, at a meeting in Bombay, passed a resolution. This resolution declared that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity for the sake of India and for the success of the cause of freedom and democracy.
Sir Stafford Cripps was a left-wing Labourite, who had actively supported the Indian national movement headed a mission was known as Cripps Mission. This mission was for full cooperation to British in Second World War. The British were not willing to agree to the formation of a truly national government. They also tried to promote the interests of the princes. While they agreed to the demand for a constituent assembly, they insisted that the Indian states in the assembly would be represented by the nominees of the princes, and that the people of the states would have no representation on it.
Individual Satyagarh was the resultant of August offer. It was started with the mass Civil Disobedience Movement but M.K Gandhi on Individual Satyagarh. This was movement for not only to seek independence but also to affirm the right of Speech. The demand of the Satyagrahi was using freedom of Speech against the war through an anti-war declaration. If government did not arrest the Satyagrahi, he or she will move repeating it in villages and start march towards Delhi (“Delhi Chalo Movement”).
The Viceroy of India, Lord Linlithgow, issued a statement from Simla on 8 August 1940 in the response of when congress formally ask England to affirm its adherence to the goal of Independence for India which is popularly known August Offer. It was formal statement issued by the Viceroy of India, Lord Linlithgow that laid the foundation of constitutional framing and Congress confessed for the formation of constituent assembly.
Communal Award was to grant separate electorates in British India for the Forward Caste, Lower Caste, Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans and Untouchables (now known as the Dalits). It is also known as ‘McDonald Award’. Almost everywhere in India mass meeting took place, political leaders different persuasions, like Madam Mohan Malviya, B.R Ambedkar and M.C Raja became active. In the end the succeeded in hammering out an agreement, known as the ‘Poona Pact’.
M.K Gandhi attended highly official meeting with Lord Irwin on the behalf of the Indian National Congress on negotiating terms of Constitutional reforms. The pact made the British Government concede some demands, which were -To withdraw all ordinances and prosecutions; to release all the political prisoners’; to restore the confiscated properties of the satyagarhis; to permit the free collection or manufacture of salt. Second Round Table Conference was held in London during Viceroyalty of Lord Willington during September to December, 1931 and Gandhi attended it to behalf of the Indian National Congress.
The observance of the Independence Day in 1930 was followed by the launching of the Civil Disobedience Movement under the leadership of Gandhi. It began with the famous Dandi March of Gandhi. On 12 March 1930, Gandhi left the Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmadabad on foot with 78 other members of the Ashram for Dandi, a village on the western sea-coast of India, at a distance of about 385 km from Ahmadabad.
On December 1928, during all parties meeting Jinnah proposed some amendments on the Nehru’s Report. He proposed ‘Fourteen Points’ for safeguarding the rights and interests of the Muslims in any future constitution of the country. These points covered all the interests of the Muslims at heated time and in this Jinnah stated that it was the "parting of ways" and that he did not want and would not have anything to do with the Indian National Congress in the future.
The Nehru Report demanded that the Fundamental Rights for the people of India wouldn’t be subjected to forfeiture. The reports had drowned an inspiration from the American bill of rights which laid to the foundation of Fundamental Rights provision in the Indian Constitution.
Simon Commission was constituted under the leadership of Sir John Simon to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. It was officially known as ‘Indian Statutory Commission’ and consists of four conservative, two Labourites and one liberal member from the British Parliament.
Swaraj Party was formed by Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjandas and was named as "Congress-Khilafat Swarajaya Party"in 1922.It also claimed to be an integral part of the Congress and professes its adherence to Non-Violence & Non-Cooperation Movement and decided to boycott the legislatures.
Non-Cooperation movement was started by Gandhi Ji in 1920 to drive the Britishers out of the country and Khilafat movement was organised under the leadership of Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali (popularly known as Ali brothers), Abul Kalam Azad, Hasrat Mohani and others to force the British government to undo the injustice done to the Sultan of Turkey.
Governor General Chelmsford had appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Justice Sydney Rowlatt in 1917 for retrospections of the nature of revolution and for suggestion which was popularly known as ‘Rowlatt Committee’.This act empowered the government to arrest any person without warrant and can detent for two years without trial.
Swadeshi Movement was started against partition of Bengal and got formal proclamation on August 7, 1905 at a meeting held at the Calcutta Town hall. It was suggested by Krishan Kumar Mitra’s journal Sanjivani in AD 1905.
Anti-Rowlatt Satyagraha movement was started by Gandhi Ji against The Rowlatt Act,1919 for the exclusion of freedom of press and detention without trial & set up a Satyagraha Sabha on 24th February 1919 at Bombay. As, the Rowlatt Act empowers the Britishers regarding the suspension of the right of Habeas Corpus.
On December 30,1906,Muslim league was formed under the leadership of Aga Khan, the Nawab of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk to safeguard the rights of Indian Muslims. Factors that promotes the Muslim league are - British Plan, Lack of Education,Loss of Sovereignty by Muslims,Expression of Religious Colour,Economic backwardness of India.
The Partition of Bengal in 1905 provided the flare for the rise of Extremists in the Indian National Movement.They were called extremist because they believed that success could be achieved only through bold means.