Charter Act, 1793 provisionalised the Company’s trade monopoly with India. The realm of Governance of Governor-General increased over the Governors of Bombay and Madras. The Supreme Court’s jurisdiction was increased to the high seas.
The Cooperative Societies can be defined as an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise". India is an agricultural country and laid the foundation of World’s biggest cooperative movement in the world. Here, we are giving a brief summary of the Cooperative Movement and Cooperative Societies in India for general awareness.
The Acts & Reforms during British rule laid down the legal framework for the organisation and functioning of government and administration in British India. These Acts & Reforms have greatly influenced our Constitution and polity. Here is the list of Acts & Reforms after 1857 during British rule so that aspirant can easily learn it.
The British Acts & Reforms during colonialism in India witnesses the evolution administrative as well as legislative structure that can also seen in today’s India.
Government of India Act, 1858 was passed to end the rule of company and transferred it to the British crown which was the outcome of 1857 revolt.The British Governor-General of India was given the title of viceroy who became the representative of the monarch.
As Percy Bysshe Shelley said that the 'History is a cyclic poem written by Time upon the memories of man’. Here, we are giving the List of an important Dates and Events of Modern history, in a chronological manner as well as important events that happened in Indian Modern History which is very useful for the aspirants of exams like UPSC-prelims, IAS-prelims, CPF, CDS, NDA and different State PSC exams.
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Here, we are giving timeline of Indian Freedom Movement from 1885 to 1947 for general awareness.
The Indian National Congress was founded by AO Hume during the reign of Governor-General Lord Duffering. Its 1st session was held at Bombay in 1885 under the presidency of W C Banerjee. The Congress split into two parts-Moderates and Extremists in the year 1907 at the Surat Session of Congress, which was also popularly known as 'Surat Split'. Here, we are giving a comparison between Moderates and Extremist leadership of Congress with their aim, goal, methodology, ideology, social bases and the name of the leaders that will enhance the knowledge of the readers.
The Indian National Congress was formed in 1885. It was the nucleus of a future parliament for our country. Here is the list of session of Indian National Congress held before independence in which venue, year of session and the President name is given.
The Indian Council Act of 1892 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that empowered legislative councils in British India by increasing their size which laid the foundation of Parliamentary system in India and considered as the landmark in the constitutional development of India.
This comprehensive Study Material “History of Modern India” is designed with the reference of NCERT books and some more books like India for Independence by Bipin Chandra, Sumit Sarkar etc. That will cater the requirements of not only the school going students but also for those who are pursuing their degree courses and even for those who are preparing for competitive exams.
Indian Council Act of 1909 is also known as Morley- Monto Reform. It was instituted to placate the Moderates ( Congress) and introduces separate electorates on the basis of religion. Therefore Lord Minto came to be known as "Father of Communal Electorate in India".
Government of India Act of 1935 marked the second milestone towards a completely responsible government in India. It ended Diarchy and provided the establishment of All India Federation. This act served some useful purposes by the experiment of provincial autonomy, thus we can say that the Government of India Act 1935 marks a point of no return in the history of constitutional development in India.
Government of India Act, 1919 also known as Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms which came into force in 1921 . It was instituted in the British Indian polity to introduce the Diarchy, i.e., rule of two which means executive councilors and popular ministers.
Charter Act of 1853 was framed on the basis of reports made by the Select Committees of Enquiry in 1852.The Act for the first time introduced Local Representation in the Indian (Central) Legislative Council.
Charter Act of 1833 was the outcome of Industrial Revolution in England which envisages that Indian’s had to function as market for the English mass production on the basis of ‘Laissez Faire’. This act replaced the office of Governor-General of Bengal with the Governor-General of India.
Charter Act of 1813 asserted the Crown’s sovereignty over British India by defining the constitutional position of British in India. It also increases the realm of British merchants in private trading.
Regulating Act of 1773 was of great constitutional importance as it was the first step taken by the British Government to control and regulate the affairs of East India Company in India and also recognised the political and administrative functions of the Company for the first time.
Doctrine of lapse was the pro-imperialist approach to expand the realm of British Kingdom in India. It was introduced by Dalhousie.The Doctrine equipped with an idea to annex those states which have no heir, get lapsed the right of ruling and it will not reverted by adoption.
The Subsidiary Alliance System was “Non-Intervention Policy” used by Lord Wellesley who was the Governor-General (1798-1805) to establish British Empire in India. This system states that every ruler in India should accept to pay a subsidy to the British for the maintenance of British army and protection from their enemies.
The arrival of Vasco da Gama in Calicut on May 20, 1498 opens a sea route from Europe to the East. After that India became the focal point of the Europe's trade and also the realm of European ambition getting wider to grab Spice Islands trade monopoly which causes numerous naval battle. Here, we are giving an interesting glimpse of the trivial fact, in the Indian history about when and why British first landed on Indian Territory.
The principal Rajput States or Provinces were Mewar (Udaipur) Marwar (Jodhpur) and Amber (Jaipur) who were alienated from the Mughal Empire due to the religious and administrative policies of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
Beginning of 17th century witnesses the rise of new Warrior class Marathas when the Bhonsle family of the Poona district got military as well as political advantage by Ahmednagar kingdom that get advantage of being local. Therefore, they took privileges and recruited a large number of Maratha sardas and soldiers in their armies. Shivaji was an expert soldier and an efficient administrator. Here, we are giving the list of Battles fought by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj for the general awareness.
Bhagat Singh was born on 28 September, 1907 and at the young age he was hanged. He was a great and brave freedom fighter who fought for the country. Popularly known as Shaheed-e-Azam Bhagt Singh. In this article we are presenting some unknown facts about Bhagat Singh and his revolutionary life which not only inspires but also influence others.
We celebrate our Independence Day on 15th August. It is worth knowing that this day of celebration is not achieved in one day, but a long process of struggle and Kakori Train Conspiracy is one of the important events of the freedom struggle. Here, we are giving 10 important facts about Kakori train Conspiracy.
The death of Aurangzeb led the foundation of decline of the mighty Mughal Emperor and it was happen due to prolong war of succession between his three sons- Muazzam, Azam and Kam Baksh.
The Revolt of 1857 (Also regarded as India's First War of Independece) was an extremely important event in Indian history. It was initiated by the sepoy of the company which arouses the accumulated grievances of the people against the Company’s administration and of their dislike for the foreign regime.
The British Government had set up a committee under Sir Alexander Muddinman to meet the demand of the Indian Leaders and in view of the resolution adopted by Swaraj Party in early 1920s.It also recommended the appointment of a Royal Commission.
Education policy of the British: In pre-British days, Hindus and Muslims were educated through Pathsala and Madrassa respectively, but their advent created a new place of learning i.e. Missionaries. So that, they can create a class of Indian who would be “Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste” who would act as interpreters between the Government and the masses.
Mathematics is a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement. The Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Mahāvīra, Bhaskara II, Madhava of Sangamagrama and Nilakantha Somayaji are classical Indian mathematician whose contribution made immortal. Here, we are giving the list of Indian mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India with their contribution.