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CBSE Class 12 Study Material

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  • Biomolecules (part-2)

    Enzymes are also a form of proteins that facilitate biochemical reactions. They are also work as catalysts because they speed up chemical reactions. Examples include the enzymes lactase and pepsin.

    Apr 5, 2013
  • Biomolecules (part-1)

    Carbohydrates are defined as optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones or compounds which give such compounds on hydrolysis

    Apr 5, 2013
  • Amines (Part-1)

    Amines are organic compounds which are basic in nature and contain nitrogen atom as central one. The general form of an amine is shown in Lewis form. R represents an alkyl group, but either or both of the hydrogens may be replaced by other groups and still retain its class as an amine.

    May 20, 2013
  • Amines (Part-2)

    Lower aliphatic amines have the property to form hydrogen bond with water molecule and because of this they are soluble in water. However, solubility decreases with increase in molar mass of amines due to increase in size of the hydrophobic alkyl part

    May 30, 2014
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes (Part-1)

    Alkyl halides form a homologous series represented by CnH2n+1X. The alkyl halides are further classified as primary, secondary or tertiary according to the nature of carbon to which halogen is attached.

    May 30, 2014
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes (Part-2)

    The solubility of Haloalkanes in the water is very less as compare to organic solvent. In order for a haloalkane to dissolve in water, energy is required to overcome the attractions between the haloalkane molecules and break the hydrogen bonds between water molecules.

    May 20, 2013
  • Coordination Compounds (Part-1)

    Concept of a primary valence and a secondary valence for a metal ion was also proposed by Werner. Binary compounds such as CrCl3, CoCl2 or PdCl2 have primary valence of 3, 2 and 2 respectively.

    May 30, 2014
  • Coordination Compounds (Part-2)

    Coordination compounds are of great importance. You can find the presence of coordination compounds in the mineral, plant and animal worlds. They play many important functional roles in the area of analytical chemistry, metallurgy, biological systems, industry and medicine.

    May 30, 2014
  • Environmental Issues (Part-1)

    When two or more agents, entities, factors, or substances interact between each other, they produce more effect rather than the sum of their individual effect. This is termed as synergetic effect or synergistic effect. It is opposite of antagonism.

    May 30, 2014
  • Environmental Issues (Part-2)

    The term acid rain can be defined as the mixture of wet and dry deposition (deposited material) from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids.

    May 30, 2014
  • Biodiversity and Conservation (part-2)

    In case of biodiversity loss when a species becomes extinct, the plant and animal species associated with it in an obligatory way also become extinct. When a host fish species becomes extinct, its unique assemblage of parasites also meets the same fate

    May 30, 2014
  • Biodiversity and Conservation (part-1)

    A great sociobiologist Edward Wilson popularized the term  biodiversity to describe the combined diversity at all the levels of biological organisation

    May 30, 2014
  • Ecosystem (part-2)

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) can be defined as the amount of light available for photosynthesis, which is light in the 400 to 700 nanometer wavelength range. PAR can be changed  seasonally and varies depending on the latitude and time of day.

    May 30, 2014
  • Ecosystem (part-1)

    There are two components in an ecosystem. Interaction of biotic and abiotic components results in a physical structure that is characteristic for each type of ecosystem. Identification and enumeration of plant and animal species of an ecosystem gives its species composition

    May 30, 2014
  • Organisms and Population (part-2)

    The number of individuals of the same species that have come into the habitat from elsewhere during the time period under consideration is termed as Immigration

    May 30, 2014
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