Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) can be defined as the amount of light available for photosynthesis, which is light in the 400 to 700 nanometer wavelength range. PAR can be changed seasonally and varies depending on the latitude and time of day.
There are two components in an ecosystem. Interaction of biotic and abiotic components results in a physical structure that is characteristic for each type of ecosystem. Identification and enumeration of plant and animal species of an ecosystem gives its species composition
Insertion of genes into an individual’s cells and tissues to treat diseases especially hereditary diseases is called as gene therapy. The mechanism of gene therapy is based on the replacement of a defective mutant allele with a functional one or gene targeting which involves gene amplification.
Transgenic animal is the animal that has had their DNA manipulated to possess and express an extra (foreign) gene. Transgenic rats, rabbits, pigs, sheep, cows and fish have been produced, although over 95 per cent of all existing transgenic animals are mice
Ecognition sequence for Hind II is the specific base sequence. Besides Hind II, today we know more than 900 restriction enzymes that have been isolated from over 230 strains of bacteria each of which recognize different recognition sequences.
Biotechnology is a type of practical biology which involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields . Biotechnology also utilizes the byproducts for development purpose.
Those elements having a partially filled d or f subshell in any common oxidation state are said to be transition elements. The term "transition elements" most commonly refers to the d-block transition elements.
Melting and boiling point of d & f block elements are very high (except Zn). These higher values are due to small atomic radii of transition elements which provides greater inter atomic forces of attraction.