CBSE Board Exam 2021: Check Important Questions & Answers for Class 12 History
CBSE Class 12th History Board Exam is scheduled for 10th June 2021. Being a theoretical subject History syllabus is vast and subjective. Hence the revision process takes a longer time than usual. Some topics/chapters have been deleted from the CBSE Class 12 th History syllabus, but here we have compiled the questions from important topics from which questions have been asked. Students can leave questions based on deleted topics.
1 Mark Questions
Ques: Name any two centres for making shell objects in the Harappan Civilisation.
Ans: Nageshwar and Balakot.
Ques: The special officers appointed to spread the message of Dhamma by Asoka were known as______________
Ans: Dhamma mahamatta
Ques: Name the traveller for whom the term, globe-trotter, is used.
Ans: Ibn Battuta
Ques: State any two features of Neo- Gothic style of architecture
Ans: High-pitched roofs, pointed arches and detailed decoration.
Ques: ‘The towns built by the Mughals were famous for their imperial grandeur and wealth.’ Support it with two features.
Ans: Agra, Delhi and Lahore were important centres of imperial administration and control.
- Mansabdars and jagirdars who were assigned territories in different parts of the empire usually maintained houses in these cities.
Ques: Mention one reason why Qandahar was a bone of contention between the Safavids and the Mughals.
Ans: It was a gateway to the subcontinent, both laid claims over it.
Ques: Cite one reason for mapping of the cities by the colonial government.
Ans: .Good maps were necessary to understand the landscape and know the topography.
Ques: The first woman to be ordained as a Bhikkhuni was _________________.
Ans: Mahapajapati Gotami
Ques: Name the traveller for whom the term, globe-trotter, is used
Ans: Polygyny is the practice of a man having several wives and Polyandry is the practice of a woman having several husbands
Ques: In Jainism the teachers who guide men and women across the river of existence are called __________________.
Ques: Indicate which of the following options is NOT correct.
People gave evasive answers to the census officials as
A. They were suspicious of census operations.
B. They thought that enquiries were being conducted to impose new taxes.
C. They were not willing to give any information regarding the women of their household.
D. They were claiming identities associated with lower status
Ans: They were claiming identities associated with lower status
3 Marks Questions
Ques: Explain how the power of the Jotedars within a village was more effective than that of the Zamindars
Ans: The power of the Jotedars within the village was more effective than that of the Zamindars:
1 Jotedars were located in villages while Zamindars lived in urban areas.
2 Indirectly controlled the ryots by advancing money, controlling local trade.
3 Withholding payment of revenue.
4 Holding benami lands.
5 Purchased the auctioned estates of Zamindars.
6 They became alternate source of power in villages
Ques: Describe the accounts of foreign travellers about the city of Vijayanagara
Ans: i. Colonel Colin Mackenzie-The ruins at Hampi were brought to light in 1800 by an engineer and antiquarian named Colonel Colin Mackenzie. An employee of the English East India Company, he prepared the first survey map of the site.
ii. Abdur Razzaq noted that fortification between the first, second and the third walls there are cultivated fields, gardens and houses
iii. Domingo Paes observed: “From the first circuit of fortification the city there is a great distance, in which are fields in which they sow rice and have many gardens and much water, in which water comes from two lake
Ques: Why did N G Ranga feel that the minorities should be interpreted in economic terms? Give reasons.
Ans: N G Ranga felt that the minorities should be interpreted in economic terms
i. ACC to N.G. Ranga the real minorities were the poor and the downtrodden.
ii. the real minorities that need protection from zamindars and money lenders and assurances of protection
iii. In his opinion it was meaningless for the poor people in the villages to know that they now had the fundamental right to live, and to have full employment, or that they could have their meetings, their inferences, their associations and various other civil liberties.
iv. According to him it was essential to create conditions where these constitutionally enshrined rights could be effectively enjoyed. For this they needed protection.
v. They need to be given representation to the Assembly.
Ques: Describe the condition of agrarian women in the Mughal rural society.
Ans: Role of Rural Womeni.
1. They worked shoulder to shoulder in the fields.
2. Men tilled and ploughed, while women sowed, weeded, threshed and winnowed the harvest.
3. Artisanal tasks such as spinning yarn, sifting and kneading clay for pottery, and embroidery were among the many aspects of production dependent on female labour.
4. They even went to the houses of their employers or to the markets if necessary.
5. They were child bearers in a society dependent on labour.
6. Marriages in many rural communities required the payment of brideprice rather than dowry to the bride’s family.
7. Remarriage was considered legitimate
Ques: Examine the notions of kingship mentioned in the Gandatindu Jataka.
Ans: Popular perceptions of kings- theGandatinduJataka describes the plight of the subjects of a wicked king.
1. When the king went in disguise to find out what his subjects thought about him, each one of them cursed him for their miseries, complaining that they were attacked by robbers at night and by tax collectors during the day.
2. To escape from this situation, people abandoned their village and went to live in the forest.
3. As this story indicates the relationship between a king and his subjects, especially the rural population, could often be strained – kings frequently tried to fill their offers by demanding high taxes, and peasants particularly found suchdemands oppressive
Ques: Examine how buildings in the Royal Centre of Vijayanagara city helped in increasing the prestige of Vijayanagara kingdom.
Ans: Royal centre
1. It included over 60 temples.
2. About thirty building complexes have been identified as palaces.
3. The Mahanavamidibba was there.
4. The “king’s palace” is the largest of the enclosures
5. It has two of the most impressive platforms, usually called the “audience hall” and the “mahanavamidibba”.
6. Rituals associated with the structure probably coincided with Mahanavami (literally, the great ninth day) of the ten-day Hindu festival during the autumn months of September and October, known variously as Dusehra (Northern India), Durga Puja
7. One of the most beautiful buildings in the royal centre was the Lotus Mahal.
Ques: Explain the grievances of the Indian sepoys against the British rule before the revolt of 1857 with examples
Ans: The Sepoys complained of:
1 Low levels of pay.
2 Difficulty in getting leave.
3 Policy of racial discrimination adopted by the British officers in terms of physical abuse,promotion,pension and terms of service.
4 Rumours about the use of animal fat in cartridges, flour etc
6 Marks Questions
Ques: Evidence of an “invasion”
Deadman Lane is a narrow alley, varying from 3 to 6 feet in width….At the point where the lane turns westward, part of a skull and the bones of the thorax and upper arm of an adult were discovered, all in a very friable condition, at a depth of 4 ft 2 in. The body lay on its back diagonally across the lane. Fifteen inches to the west were a few fragments of a tiny skull. It is to these remains that the lane owes its name. From John Marshall, Mohenjodaro and the Indus Civilisation,1931.
- Why is the lane called the Deadman Lane?
- State the conclusions that scholars and archaeologists draw from this information?
- Give reasons to justify that the earlier interpretations can sometimes be reversed?
Ans: a) The lane is called Deadman lane:
- Narrow lane about 3 ft to 6 ft in width from where human skeletal remains have been discovered
- Part of a skull and the bones of the thorax and upper arm of an adult were discovered
- The body lay on its back diagonally across the lane
- Tiny skull has also been found
b) Scholars and archaeologists have concluded that
1 the evidence points to an invasion.
2 According to them this invasion brought about the end of the civilisation
Ques: “Without a shot being fired” This is what Moon wrote: For over twenty-four hours riotous mobs were allowed to rage through this great commercial city unchallenged and unchecked. The finest bazaars were burnt to the ground without a shot being fired to disperse the incendiaries (i.e. those who stirred up conflict). The … District Magistrate marched his (large police) force into the city and marched it out again without making any effective use of it at all …
a How did Amritsar become a scene of bloodshed in 1947?
b Analyse the attitude of the soldiers and policemen towards the mob?
c Interpret the reactions of the British administration to the law and order situation in Amritsar in March 1947.
Ans: a) i. For over twenty-four hour riotous mobs were allowed to rage through this great commercial city unchallenged and unchecked.
ii. The finest bazaars were burnt to the ground without a shot being fired to disperse the incendiaries.
b) 1. The police failed to fire even a single shot when arson and killings were taking place.
2. Police forced into the city and marched it out again.
Ques: On clearance and settled cultivation
Passing through one village in the lower Rajmahal hills, Buchanan wrote:
The view of the country is exceedingly fine, the cultivation, especially the narrow valleys of rice winding in all directions, the cleared lands with scattered trees, and the rocky hills are in perfection; all that is wanted is some appearance of progress in the area and a vastly extended and improved cultivation, of which the country is highly susceptible. Plantations of Asan and Palas, for Tessar (Tassar silk worms) and Lac, should occupy the place of woods to as great an extent as the demand will admit; the remainder might be all cleared, and the greater part cultivated, while what is not fit for the purpose, might rear Plamira (palmyra) and Mowa (mahua).
1. Mention about Buchanan’s opinion of how the land of Rajmahal more productive.
2. How were Buchanan’s vision and priorities on development different from the local inhabitants?
3. Explain how the inhabitants of the Rajmahal hill felt about the Buchanan’s ideas of production.
Ans: 1 Productive
- Land should be cleared of woods
- Plantations of Asan and Palas, for Tessar (Tassar silk worms) and Lac, should occupy the place of woods
- For the expansion and extension of cultivable area
- The land which was not fit for cultivation might rear plamira and mahua
2 Buchanan and local inhabitants
- Locals wanted to be in their land
- They wanted to carry on their subsistence cultivation but British wanted extensive cultivation.
- Locals were close and sentimental to their trees whereas British wanted to clear the lands for cultivation.
3 Feelings of locals
- Suspicious towards Buchanan
- Felt discriminated
- iii Felt critical for each other
Ques: We have never asked for privileges
Hansa Mehta of Bombay demanded justice for women, not reserved seats, or separate electorates.
We have never asked for privileges. What we have asked for is social justice, economic justice, and political justice.
We have asked for that equality which alone can be the basis of mutual respect and understanding, without which real cooperation is not possible between man and woman.
- Hansa Mehta did not demand reserved seats for women. Give reasons.
- What could be the basis of mutual respect among men and women?
- Explain the ways in which the women can be empowered economically?
Ans: a) Hansa Mehta did not demand reserved seats for women as :
- It would be divisive in nature
- It could lead to resentment
- She didn’t want privileges for women instead give them opportunities to empower themselves.
- b) The basis of mutual respect among men and women:
- Appreciation of each other’s contribution and role
- Equality and cooperation between genders
- Women treated at par with men
- c) Women can be powered economically by:
- Equal rights in property
- Access to education
- Necessary job training 4.Equal pay for equal work
8 Marks Questions
Ques: Describe the teaching of Baba Guru Nanak and its relevance in today’s world.
Ans: Teaching of Baba Guru Nanak
1 Nirguna Bhakti i.e, God,the absolute ‘rab’ had no gender or form.
2 Rejected rituals of Hindus and Muslims.
3 Rejected image worship.
5 Repetition of the divine name to connect with the divine.
6 Simple mode of worship.
7 Teachings in local language of the region- Punjabi.
8 He formed a community of devotees.
9 Started the tradition of Gurus.
10 The hymns called ‘Gurbani’ are translated into various languages.
His teachings appeal because of the simplicity, practicality and feeling of community.
Ques: How did the village panchayat regulate the rural society in the Mughal period? Explain.
Ans: Different sources to know about the rural society during the Mughal period are as follows
- Archaeological sources (monuments, houses, paintings, material remains) tell us about mughal society.
- All the mughal chronicles like Badshah Nama tell us about mughal society
- Ain-i Akbari, authored by Akbar’s court historian AbulFazl records the arrangements made by the state to ensure cultivation,collect revenue
- Ain tell us about how to regulate the relationship between the state and the zamindars.
- Ain gives us the vision of Akbar’s empire
- Ain tell us that social harmony was provided by a strong ruling class.
- It projected the idea that any revolt against the Mighty Mughals was bound to fail.
- Whatever we learn from the Ain is a view from the top.
- Revenue records from Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan dating from theseventeenth and eighteenth centuries give us information.
- The records of the East India Company provide useful descriptions of agrarian relations in eastern India.
Ques: Explain the factors responsible for the partition of India during 1947.
Ans: Factors responsible for Partition of India
- Separate electorates given by the British to Muslims in 1909 and expanded in 1919. (Govt. of India Act-1909 and 1919)
- Sectarian slogans used on the basis of religion in the 1920s.
- Tabligh and Shuddhi movements -Music before Mosque, cowprotection movement etc.
- Communal tensions and riots deepened the differences between the two communities.
- Outcome of 1937 elections.
- Muslim league demanded a joint government in UP and was rejected by INC.
- Jinnah’s insistence that the league should be recognized as the sole spokesman of the Muslims and other developments.
- Demand for communal vote in the executive council by Jinnah.
- Pakistan resolution by Muslim league in 1940
- Congress ministries also contributed to the widening of rift. The party rejected the Muslim league proposal for coalition govt.
- Provincial elections of 1946.
- Cabinet Mission Plan.
- Direct Action Day.
- Partition of India and Communal riots