CBSE Class 9 Science, Improvement in Food Resources: Chapter notes (Part-III)
Here you will get the CBSE Class 9 Science notes on chapter 15 ‘Improvement in Food Resources’ (Part-III) .
With the changed exam structure, now CBSE Class 9th students will have to study full syllabus for the annual exams. So, they need a study material that will allow them to revise easily asnd quickly. With the chapter notes provided here, it will become easy to access a large and authentic information in less time.
Main topics covered in this part of CBSE Class 9 Science, Improvement in Food Resources: Chapter Notes (Part –III), are:
- Care of Cattle
- Poultry Farming
- Fish Production
- Marine Fishing
- Composite Fish culture
- Bee Keeping
Key notes for Chapter- Improvement in Food Resources, are:
Care of Cattle
Cattle farming consists of four components:
Shelter, Food, Grooming and Protection from diseases
- It should be spacious enough to provide proper space for each animal.
- It should be clean, dry and well ventilated.
- It should have proper arrangement for the disposal of animal waste.
- It should protect animals from rain, heat and cold.
- It should contain roughage which is obtained fom coarse and fibrous substances like fodder, hay, straw. This helps in proper digestion in animals.
- It should contain concentrates which is low in fibre but rich in proteins and other nutrients. Oil seed cake, gram husk, etc., are common examples of concentrates. They are helpful in enhanced milk production.
- Cattle should be cleaned regularly.
- Their skin should be brushed properly to avoid any insects to live on their body.
4. Protection from Diseases
Before discussing protection we have to know about other factors related to diseases of cattle:
Diseases of Cattle:
The diseases of dairy animals are broadly classified into the following categories:
- Diseases caused by parasites (external parasites are tick mite, lice and internal parasites are worms)
- Communicable (infectious) diseases caused by pathogens like bacteria, viruses, fungi etc.
- Non-communicable (non-infectious) diseases caused due to deficiency of nutrients or malfunctioning of body organs.
Symptoms of sick animals:
- Animal shows slow body movement or becomes inactive.
- Animal may pass loose dung and coloured urine.
- Animal’s body may start shivering.
- The milk yield or working capacity of animal is reduced.
Prevention of cattle diseases:
- The animal should be kept in spacious, cleaned and well ventilated place.
- It should be given proper nutritious food.
- Animals should be vaccinated at regular intervals.
It is the rearing of domesticated fowl, ducks ,geese, turkey to obtain eggs and meat.
It is the cheap source of protein.
Breeds of poultry:
(i) Indegenous Breeds eg Aseel
(ii) Exotic Breeds eg Leghorn
- Birds grown for obtaining meat are called broilers.
- They require high protein and fat and vitamin A and K rich diet
- They can be used after 6- 8 weeks from their birth.
- Birds grown for obtaining egg are called layers.
- They are fed with high fibre content.eg grit of stones for calcium and grains for fibre.
- They can be used after 20 weeks when sexual maturity has been attained to lay eggs.
Management Practices in Poultry farms:
- Poultry birds should be given proper diet as per their needs.
- Providing adequate space to birds to ensure proper growth.
- Maintenance of proper hygiene and temperature conditions.
- Protection form diseases-they suffer from diseases caused by virus, bacteria, fungi.
- Regular spraying of disinfectants to kill bacteria, virus, fungi and parasites which can otherwise cause diseases.
Fish production is a great source of protein to our diet.
Fish production is of two types:
(i) Finned Fish Production I True Fish Production: It includes production and management of cartilaginous and bony fishes such as pomphret, tuna cod, catla, prawns, rohu, etc.
(ii) Unfinned Fish Production: It includes production of shellfish such as prawns, mollusks.
Depending on the mode of obtaining fishes, fishing is of two types:
(i) Capture Fishing: Here, naturally living fish is caught from water, both marine and inland.
(ii) Culture Fishing: it is cultivating, rearing and harvesting of fish. Culture fishery is also called fish farming or pisciculture and aquaculture.
The practice of rearing & culturing marine fish, i.e., fish found in seas and oceans is called marine fishing or mariculture.
Tuna, cod, sardines, Bombay duck, pomphret, mackerel ,etc are common marine fish.
Marine fishes are caught by:
(1) Traditional methods: These include fishing nets and gear operated fishing vessels.
(2) Modern methods: These include use of ecosounders and satellite to locate fish shoals.
It includes fish production in fresh water (for example ponds, rivers, lakes, reservoirs) and brackish water (for example estuaries). Inland fishing is also named as aquaculture.
Composite Fish culture
- In this type of fish culture, five to six varieties of fish are reared in a single fishpond.
- They are selected so that they do not commpete for food. They should have different
- For example: catla: feeds in the upper part water
Rohu feeds in rmiddle part of water
Mrigals, Common carps: feeds at bottom
Advantages of composite culture:
- Different fishes feed on different foods, so they do not compete for food.
- Six different types of fishes can be reared together in one pond.
- Very high yield is obtained.
Disadvantages of composite culture:
- Many fish breed only in the rainy season so hormonal stimulation has to be given.
- Good quality seeds (ie- organisms used for reproduction) are not available.
It is the practice of keeping, caring and management of honeybees on a large scale for obtaining honey and wax. It is also called apiculture.
Apiaries /Bee farms
They are the places where the bees are raised for commercial honey production.
Indigenous varieties: Apis cerana indica (Indian bee), Apis dorsata (Rock bee), Apis florae (Little bee)
Exotic varieties: Apis mellifera (Italian bee), Apis adamsoni (South African bee)
Mellifera is domesticated in India on large scale because of its following advantages:
- High honey collection capacity.
- They reproduce fast.
- They sting less.
- They stay in a beehive for long.
Colony of honey bee:
Honey bees are social, polymorphic insects which live in colonies in nests (known as bee-hive).
There are three types of honey bees in the bee colony:
Queen Bee: She is the supreme bee in a colony.
Drones: They are smaller and shorter than the queen bee.
Workers: They are the most active members of the colony.
- It is the availability of flowers to the bees for nectar and pollen collection.
- It affects the quality and quantity of honey because different flora produce nectar and pollen of different types.
Try the following questions:
Q1. What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?
Q2. Name two types of animal feed and write their functions.
Q3. Suggest some preventive measures for the diseases of poultry birds.
Q4. What is composite fish culture system? Mention one merit and one demerit of this system.
Q5. What is hormonal stimulation in fish and how is it done in fish?
Q6. Why bee keeping should be done in good pasturage?