Environment Questions for IAS: Environmental Legislation in IndiaAthar Imam Raza
The significance of Environment and Ecology is higher in UPSC IAS Exam and the IAS aspirants have to every aspect of all the subjects. Here, we have provided Environment and Ecology quizzes for the IAS Prelims Exam 2018 based on the topic- Environmental Legislation process in India.
The given Environment and Ecology questions are very important for the upcoming IAS Prelims Exam 2018.
1. Consider the following statements regarding the national legislation to protect the environment in India:
1. The forty second amendment Clause (g) to Article 51A of the Indian constitution made it a fundamental duty to protect and improve the natural environment.
2. There is a directive, given to the State as one of the Directive Principles of State Policy regarding the protection and improvement of the environment.
3. The Department of Environment was established in India in 1980 to ensure a healthy environment for the country.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a. 1 only
b. 1 and 2
c. 2 and 3
d. 1, 2 and 3
The forty second amendment Clause (g) to Article 51A of the Indian constitution made it a fundamental duty to protect and improve the natural environment. “It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and have compassion for living creatures.” There is a directive, given to the State as one of the Directive Principles of State Policy regarding the protection and improvement of the environment.
Article 48A states “The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country”. The Department of Environment was established in India in 1980 to ensure a healthy environment for the country. This later became the Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1985. This Ministry has overall responsibility for administering and enforcing environmental legislation and policies.
2. The Environment Protection Act of 1986 (EPA) came into force soon after which of the following disaster in India?
a. Bhopal Gas Tragedy
b. Oleum Gas Leak
c. Maline Landslide in Pune
d. None of the above
In India, the constitutional provisions are backed by a number of legislations – Acts and rules. Most of our environmental legislations are Acts of the Parliament or the State Legislatures. These Acts generally delegate powers to regulatory agencies, to make rules for the purpose of their implementation. The Environment Protection Act of 1986 (EPA) came into force soon after the Bhopal Gas Tragedy and is considered umbrella legislation as it fills many lacunae in the existing legislations. Thereafter, a large number of environmental legislations have been passed to deal with specific environmental problems. For example, in the recent past, the use of CNG for public transport vehicles has been made mandatory in Delhi. This has reduced air pollution in Delhi.
3. Which of the following is not correctly matched?
a. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act - 1977
b. The Environment (Protection) Act - 1986
c. The Wild Life (Protection) Act - 1976
d. The Forest (Conservation) Act - 1980
In 1972, Parliament enacted the Wild Life Act (Protection) Act. The Wild Life Act provides for state wildlife advisory boards, regulations for hunting wild animals and birds, the establishment of sanctuaries and national parks, regulations for trade in wild animals, animal products and trophies, and judicially imposed penalties for violating the Act. Harming endangered species listed in Schedule 1 of the Act is prohibited throughout India. Hunting species, like those requiring special protection (Schedule II), big game (Schedule III), and small game (Schedule IV), is regulated through licensing. A few species classified as vermin (Schedule V), may be hunted without restrictions. Wildlife wardens and their staff administer the act.
4. The Indian government has started conservation projects of which of the following species?
d. All of the above
An amendment to the Wild Life Act (Protection) Act 1972 was done in 1982 which introduced a provision permitting the capture and transportation of wild animals for the scientific management of the animal population. India is a signatory to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES 1976). Under this convention, export or import of endangered species and their products are governed by the conditions and stipulations laid down therein. The Indian government has also started some conservation projects for individual endangered species like Hungal (1970), Lion (1972), Tiger (1973), Crocodiles (1974), Brown-antlered Deer (1981) and Elephant (1991-92).
5. The Forest Act was enacted in which of the following year?
First Forest Act was enacted in 1927. This is one of the many surviving colonial legislations. It was enacted to consolidate the law related to forest, the transit of forest produce and the duty livable on timber and other forest produce. Subsequently, the Forest (Conservation). The act was promulgated in 1980 to make certain reforms over the preceding Act of 1927.The 1927 Act deals with the four categories of the forests, namely reserved forests, village forests, protected forests and private forests. A state may declare forestlands or wastelands as reserved forest and may sell the produce from these forests. Any unauthorized felling of trees quarrying, grazing and hunting in reserved forests is punishable with a fine or imprisonment, or both reserved forests assigned to a village community are called village forests.