IAS Prelims Exam: Physical Geography NCERT Questions: INTERIOR OF EARTH -II

Jagran Josh

Q.1. Horizontal structure of lava on its way to surface is called:

a. Lacoliths
b. Batholiths
c. Sills
d. Phacolith.

Explanation: Thick Horizontal bodies are sills and thinner horizontal bodies are sheets. Lapoliths are saucer shape and concave bodies.

Q.2. Which of the following is indirect source of information to know interior of earth?

a.Mined materials
b.Volcanic eruptions
c.Deep ocean drilling
d.Meteors

Explanation: Volcanic eruption, mining and deep ocean drilling project are source of obtaining direct information.

Q.3. Which of the following is true about gravitation force?

1.Gravity  give us information about the distribution of mass of the material in the
crust of the earth.
2.Gravity is greater near poles and lesser near equator.

Select the correct answer using following codes.

a.Only 1
b.Only 2
c.Both 1 and 2
d.Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

The gravitation force (g) is not the same at different latitudes on the surface. It is greater
near the poles and less at the equator. This is because of the distance from the centre at the
equator being greater than that at the poles. The gravity values also differ according to the
mass of material. The uneven distribution of mass of material within the earth influences
this value.

Q.4. Consider the following statements

1.The point where energy is released is called epicentre of earth.
2.The point on the surface nearest to focus is called hypocentre.

Select the correct answer using following codes.

a.Only 1
b.Only 2
c.Both 1 and 2
d.Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

The point where the energy is released is called the focus of an earthquake, alternatively, it is called the hypocentre. The energy waves travelling in different directions reach the surface. The point on the surface, nearest to the focus, is called epicentre.

Q.5. With reference to earthquake waves which of the following is true?

1.Denser the materials higher are the velocity of earthquake waves.
2.P and S waves are types of surface waves.

Select the correct answer using following codes.

a.Only 1
b.Only 2
c.Both 1 and 2
d.Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

Earthquake waves are basically of two types — body waves and surface waves. Body waves are generated due to the release of energy at the focus and move in all directions travelling through the body of the earth. Body waves interact with the surface rocks and generate new set of waves called surface waves. There are two types of body waves. They are called P and S-waves.

Q.6.  A wave which can travel only through solid material. It helps scientist to understand interior of earth. These waves are more destructive. Which wave has following characteristics?

a.Surface wave
b.S wave
c.P wave
d.Body wave

Explanation: S-waves arrive at the surface with some time lag. These are called secondary waves. An
Important fact about S-waves is that they can travel only through solid materials.

Q.7. Which of the following are properties of p waves?

1.They are the first to arrive at surface.
2.They travel through gaseous, solid and liquid materials.
3.They cause stretching and squeezing of material as they vibrate perpendicular to the direction of wave.

Select the correct answer using following codes

a.Only 1
b. 1 and 2 only
c.1 and 3 only
d.1,2 and 3

Explanation: P-waves vibrate parallel to the direction of the wave. This exerts pressure on the material in the direction of the propagation. As a result, it creates density differences in the material leading to stretching and squeezing of the material. Other three waves vibrate perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Hence, they create troughs and crests in the material through which they pass.

Q.8. Consider the following statements.

1.The shadow zone of P-wave is much larger than that of the S-waves.

2.P- waves are similar to light waves.

Select the correct answer using following codes.

a.Only 1
b.Only 2
c.Both 1 and 2
d.Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation: The P-waves are similar to sound waves. They travel through gaseous, liquid and solid materials. The shadow zone of S-wave is much larger than that of the P-waves.

Q.9. According to magnitude, earthquake events are scaled using which scale?

a.Ritcher scale
b.Mercalli scale
c.Both a and b
d.None

Explanation: The earthquake events are scaled either according to the magnitude or intensity of the shock. The magnitude scale is known as the Richter scale. The intensity scale is named after Mercalli, an Italian seismologist.

Q.10. Consider the following statements.

1.Magnitude scale takes into account visible damage caused by the event.
2.Intensity scales relates to energy released during quake.

Select the correct answer using following codes.

a.Only 1
b.Only 2
c.Both 1 and 2
d.Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:The magnitude relates to the energy released during the quake. The magnitude is expressed in absolute numbers, 0-10. The intensity scale takes into account the visible damage caused by the event. The range of intensity scale is from 1-12.

Q.11. Which of the following are immediate hazardous effects of earthquake?

1.Soil erosion
2.Ground lurching
3.Tsunami
4.Floods from dams

Select the correct answer using following codes

1.Only 3
2.1,3 and 4 only
3.2,3 and 4 only
4.1,2,3 and 4

Explanation: The following are the immediate hazardous effects of earthquake: Ground Shaking, Differential ground settlement, Land and mud slides, Soil liquefaction, Ground lurching, Avalanches, Ground displacement, Floods from dam and levee failures, Tsunami.

Q.12. Consider the following statements.

1.Tsunamis occur even if epicentre is above or below oceanic waters.
2.Tsunamis are waves generated by the tremors and not an earthquake in itself.

Select the correct answer using following codes.

a.Only 1
b.Only 2
c.Both 1 and 2
d.Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation: The effect of tsunami would occur only if the epicentre of the tremor is below oceanic waters and the magnitude is sufficiently high. Tsunamis are waves generated by the tremors and not an earthquake in itself.

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