NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 8: Challenges to Democracy

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Democratic Politics Chapter 8 - Challenges to Democracy provides you the accurate and thorough answers to all the intext questions given in the chapter. This chapter does not have any exercise.  So, students can practice the intext questions to access their understanding and knowledge about the challenges to democracy. All the answers have been explained in simple and easy language. Students must go through these NCERT solutions to score good marks in their school tests and the board examinations.

Check below the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 8:

Check below NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science Chapter 8: Challenges to Democracy:

Intext Questions

Page no. 103

Different contexts, different challenges

Each of these cartoons represents a challenge to democracy. Please describe what that challenge is. Also place it in one of the three categories mentioned in the first section.

Answer:

  1. Rigging of elections – Challenge of deepening of democracy.
  2. Use of muscle power in elections – Challenge of deepening of democracy.
  3. Inadequate representation of women – Challenge of expansion of democracy.
  4. Use of money power in elections – Challenge of deepening of democracy.

Also Check: CBSE Class 10 Social Science Syllabus 2020-2021

Page No. 104

Question: Write a description of the challenges for democracy in the following situations.

Answer:

Case and Context

 

Your description of the challenges for democracy in that situation

Mexico: Second free election after the defeat of PRI in 2000; defeated candidates alleges rigging.

To hold free and fair elections without any malpractices and influence of the reigning government.

China: The Communist party adopts economic reforms but maintains a monopoly over political power.

To hold multiparty free and fair elections.

Pakistan: General Musharraf holds referendum, allegations of fraud in the voter's list.

To eliminate fraud malpractices during referendum and elections.

Iraq: Widespread sectarian violence as the new government fails to establish its authority.

To prevent the killings based on sects.

South Africa: Mandela retires from active politics; pressure on his successor Mbeki to withdraw some concessions given to the white minority.

To prevent the domination of majority community over the minority community.

US, Guantanamo Bay: UN Secretary General calls this a violation of international law; US refused to respond.

To prevent the domination of the world body like UNO from domination of influential, rich and powerful countries like USA

Saudi Arabia: Women were not allowed to take part in public activities, no freedom of religion for the minority.

To establish the principle of universal adult franchise and the freedom to practice ones own religion.

Yugoslavia: Ethnic tension between Serbs and Albanians on the rise in the province of Kosovo; Yugoslavia disintegrated.

To minimize social differences and social divisions in disintegrated Yugoslavia and to establish the principle of power sharing.

Belgium: One round of constitutional change taken place, but the Dutch speakers not satisfied; they want more autonomy.

To give equal political rights to both the Dutch and French speaking communities. To prevent the partition of the country on linguistic basis.

Sri Lanka: Peace talks between the government and LTTE breaks down, renewed violence.

To prevent a civil war, the brutal state supported violence on the sectarian minority community.

US, Civil Rights: Blacks have won equal rights, but they are still poor, less educated and marginalised.

To establish economic equality and provide equal opportunities of education and health facilities to all including blacks.

Northern Ireland: The civil war has ended but Catholics and Protestants yet to develop trust.

To provide equal political, religious and economic freedom to both the communities.

Nepal: Constituent Assembly about to be elected; unrest in Taraiareas; Maoists have not surrendered arms.

To establish and strengthen democracy and to prevent violence that can threaten the forces of democracy.

Bolivia: Morales, a supporter of water struggle, becomes the Prime Minister, MNC's threaten to leave the country.

To establish democratic principles, which are beneficial to each and every section of society.

Page No. 106

Different types of challenges :
Now that you have noted down all these challenges, let us group these together into some broad categories. Given below are some spheres or sites of democratic politics. You may place against each of these the specific challenges that you noted for one or more countries or cartoons in the previous section. In ease you find that some challenges do not fit into any of the categories given below, you can create new categories and put some items under that.
Answer:

Constitutional design

 

It is related to framing of the Constitution and giving rights and freedom to people. It applies for countries like Saudi Arabia, China, Belgium, Nepal and Poland.

Democratic rights

 

 

To provide people with basic rights and freedoms in countries like Saudi Arabia, Guantanamo Bay and Poland.

In India, even now in villages, people of lower caste are discriminated.

Working of institutions

Challenge to non-democratic countries like Mexico, Myanmar and China. In India, some parties and organisations work on caste and communal lines.

Elections

 

 

To hold free and fair elections in countries like Mexico, Chile and Poland.

In India, rigging of elections is a big challenge to democracy.

Federalism, decentralization

 

 

To establish democratic institutions at local levels also in Yugoslavia and Belgium.

In India, the challenge is to establish linguistic equality.

Accommodation of diversity

 

 

To resolve social diversified issues in countries like Northern Ireland, Yugoslavia, Belgium and Sri Lanka.

In India, conflicts due to caste and communal differences pose a challenge to democracy.

Political Organisation

 

 

To democratise organisations in countries like Ghana, Northern Ireland, Sri Lanka and South Africa.

In India, there is increased criminalisation of political parties.

Religious and equality

 

 

To establish religious equality in countries like Saudi Arabia and Northern Ireland.

In India, religious, social and economic discrimination of people belonging to lower castes exists.

Also Check:

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English

Page No. 107

1. Let us group these again, this time by the nature of these challenges as per the classification suggested in the first section. For each of these categories, find at least one example from India as well.

Answer:

Foundational Challenge

Poland, Myanmar, Pakistan, Iraq, US, Guantanamo Bay, Nepal

In India, Naxal problem and insurgency in North-Eastern states.

Challenge of Expansion

 

 

Ghana, International organisations, Saudi Arabia, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, Northern Ireland.

In India, to grant more powers to local governments like municipal bodies and village panchayats.

Challenge of deepening

 

 

Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Belgium, Bolivia and US- Civil rights.

In India, to increase women representation in Parliament and state legislatures.

2. Now let us think only about India. Think of all the challenges that democracy faces in contemporary India. List those five that should be addressed first of all. The listing should be in order of priority, i.e., the challenge you find most important or pressing should be mentioned at number 1, and so on. Give one example of that challenge and your reasons for assigning it the priority.

Answer:

Priority

Challenges to democracy

Example

Reasons for Preference

 

1.

Challenge of expansion

To distribute power among various units of the government.

To give power to the local self governments..

2.

Challenge of Deepening

To provide 33% reservation to women in parliament.

To give better representation to women who constitute half of the country's population.

3.

Criminalisation of Politics

To prevent people with criminal records to participate in elections.

To elect deserving candidates with a clean image who will govern and frame laws for the country.

4.

Challenge of Deepening

To provide religious, social and economic equalities to the people of lower castes.

To eliminate any kind of discriminations based on casts, creeds and religions.

5.

Challenge of Corruption

To attract poor voters by offering money and food grains like wheat and rice at low costs.

To conduct free and fair elections to give chance to the independent candidates.

Page No. 109

Here are some challenges that require political reforms. Discuss these chal­lenges in detail, study the reform options offered here and give your preferred solution with reasons. Remember that none of the options offered here is ‘right’ or ‘wrong’. You can opt for a mix of more than one option, or come up with something that is not offered here. But you must give your solution’in details and offer reasons for your choice.

Doctors’ absenteeism
Challenge:

Political funding
Challenge:

Uttar Pradesh government got a survey done and found out that most of the doctors posted in the rural primary health centres are simply not there. They live in a town, carry out private practice and visit the village where they are posted only once or twice in the entire month. Villagers have to travel to towns and pay very high fee to private doctors even for common ailments.
Reform proposals:

• The government should make it compulsory
for the doctors to live in the village where they are posted, otherwise their service should be terminated.

• District administration and police should carry out surprise raids to check the attendance of the doctors.

• Village panchayat should be given the power to write the annual report of the doctor which should be read out in the gram sabha meeting.

• Problems like this can be solved only if Uttar Pradesh is split into several smaller states which can be administered more efficiently.

On an average, every candidate who contested the last Lok Sabha elections owned a property of more than Rs one crore. There is a fear that only wealthy people or those with their support can afford to fight elections. Most of the political parties are dependent on money given by big business houses. The worry is that the role of money in politics will reduce whatever little voice the poor have in our democracy. Reform proposals:

• The financial accounts of every political party should be made public. These accounts should be examined by government auditors.

• There should be state funding of elections.
Parties should be given some money by the
government to meet their election expenditure.

• Citizens should be encouraged to give more donations to parties and to political workers. Such donations should be exempt from income tax.

Any other problem of your choice
Challenge:
Reform proposals:

Answer:

Criminalisation of Politics Challenge:  There is an increased criminalisation of politics. People with criminal records get nomination to stand for the central and the state elections. This is a matter of concern about the outcome of the elections. Often such contestants get themselves elected either by rigging the votes or by distributing money to the people.

Reform Proposals:

People with serious criminal charges should be disqualified from contesting the elections.

Fast courts should be set up for the trial of convicted MPs and MLAs.

Any kind of monetary and material distribution to attract the voters should be completely prevented.

Page No. 112

1. (Write your name here) ________________________ ’s definition of good democracy (not more than 50 words).

2. Features (use only as many points as you want. Try to compress it in as few points as possible)

Answer:

  1. Definition of good democracy : A good democracy is the government that is run and elected by the people to work for the welfare of all people of the country irrespective of their cast, religion or financial status. In a democracy, people have freedom of speech and expression and judiciary is independent of the control of executive and legislature.
  2. Features of democracy:

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Download NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 8

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