SWACHH BHARAT MISSION Explained for UPSC IAS Exam
SWACHH BHARAT MISSION
The Prime Minister launched Swachh Bharat Mission on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi on 2nd October, 2014. The concept of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is to pave access for every person to sanitation facilities including toilets, solid and liquid waste disposal systems, village cleanliness and safe and adequate drinking water supply. The programme is to be implemented by Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. An action plan has been drawn up for Swachh Bharat to become a reality by 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. The Mission aims to triple the growth percentage of toilet from present 3% to 10% by 2019. From the present level of construction of 14000 toilets per day this Action Plan proposes to increase the construction to 48000 toilets daily. The action plan calls for an Open Defecation Free (ODF) India in five years time.
This will be done through:
• Construction of individual, cluster & community toilets.
• Cleanliness through Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM).
• Laying of water pipelines in all villages to enable tap connection in households on demand by 2019.
To begin with, as part of Swachh Bharat, priority is being given to build toilets for boys and girls in all schools of the country. This is envisaged to be completed in one year. To strengthen the delivery mechanism in sanitation in rural areas the following measures have been proposed:
(a) Signing MoU with States, on water and sanitation in which states will commit to Swachh Bharat by 2019 as also to creating by 2015 a unified structure at state level for implementation of both water and sanitation, with interchangeability of funds between water and sanitation so that idle funds do not lie in States and targets are not starved of funds in either of the two sectors.
(b) Release to States with 'Just in Time' concept, to be adopted by Centre to avoid extra cost of funds to Government of India.
(c) Launch of a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) at the Central level acting as a PMC will route Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) funds and also do PPP projects in Community toilets, water purification etc. This SPV would also handle donations under Section 35 AC Income Tax Act and or works allotted by States as a PMC or allotted by Ministry in consultation with States through a MoU. The SPV will also effectively carry out Information, Education & Communication (IEC), Inter Personal Communication (IPC) activities.
(d) Enable a system of small loans through agencies like NABARD, SIDBI (or Banks through priority sector lending without co-lateral) to those households for the construction of toilets which are eligible for incentives or need funds to construct better toilets.
(e) Developing a Block Level cadre of Sanitation Coordinators who shall be the main support to Gram Panchayats (GP) in disseminating information and strengthening capacity in sanitation activities.
(f) Identifying a Swachchata Doot (messenger) for each GP in the country, equipping them with skills on sanitation and giving performance linked incentives.
(g)Intensive monitoring at the household level shall be taken up through the MIS of the Ministry, as name of each household has already been collected by Ministry of Drinking Water Supply through baseline data recently. Besides senior officers of Centre & State should directly talk to the Sarpanches on telephone to get feedback.
(h) Annual Sanitation Survey will be taken up with focus on capturing data on actual usage of built toilets.
Convergence with Other Ministries and within Ministry with Schemes
In this matter, co-operation and convergence of all Ministries, Central & State schemes, CSR & bilateral/multilateral assistance may become necessary as well as new & innovative ways of funding such interventions.
The main convergencies proposed are:
• Convergence will be explored with MNREGA, Indira Awas Yojana (lAY) for construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHLs), with Backward Regions Grant Fund (BRGF) for construction of Community Sanitary Complexes (CSCs) and with Ministry of Human Resource Development and Ministry of Women and Child Development.
• Convergence with National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) will be carried out to ensure simultaneous Water Supply for IHHLs, Schools and Anganwadi Toilets and CSC. Interchangeability of funds and functionaries in the two sectors will be implemented if need be.
• Convergence with Ministry of Panchayati Raj will be carried out through the Rajiv Gandhi Panchayat Shashaktikaran Yojana to prioritize sanitation in their project activities, which would be high priority for the Gram Panchayats.
• Tapping MPLADS/MLALADS funds for Gap Funding for construction of sanitary facilities especially in Schools, Anganwadis and for CSCs and SLWM projects as well as for water supply schemes.
• Convergence with CSR funds from Central PSUs as well as other Companies. Further the State Water and Sanitation Mission (SWSM) at the State level and District Water & Sanitation Mission (DWSM) at district level will be encouraged to tap CSR funds.
• Convergence with Ministry of Women and Child Development for creation of Integrated Women Sanitation Complexes. Further the Ministry shall be responsible to provide toilets and drinking water facilities in all Anganwadis.
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Plan
Since the major issue is need for behavioural change, this Ministry will unleash a National Reach Out Campaign, and initiate a continuous door to door contact with every rural household in the country. A week long national sanitation campaign was held from 26th September, 2014 culminating on 2nd October, 2014. These national organizations would reach out through students of schools and colleges. The proposed SPY to be set up by 2015 will also handle the Ministry's requirements of IEC/IPC. NABARD has also shown initiative in IEC/IPC. The Plan envisages:
• Launching of a National Level/State Level Media campaign covering audio visual, mobile telephony and local outreach programmes to communicate the message. Involvement of social, local, sports or movie icons in Sanitation messaging will be increased with new visuals for electronic/print media.
• Involvement of School Children as messengers of Change on WASH - Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Inclusion of WASH inputs in School curriculum till Class X.
• Setting up of One Model Community Sanitary Complex (CSC) immediately in each of the 6000 Blocks in the country as an IEC tool.
• Training of masons in the construction of sanitary toilets will be taken up across the country in a focused manner.
• Key Resource Centers to be strengthened both at the Central level as well as State level to carry out capacity building of stakeholders. They shall also be given the task of IEC/IPC activities at the GP level.
• IEC activities will also be taken up through various mass media and other organizations like UNICEF, WSP, WATERAID, WHO, ADB, Rotary India/Sulabh, NGO networks, universities, schools, and corporate houses.