UGC NET December 2019: Important Reading Comprehension Questions with Answers
To clear UGC NET December 2019 Exam, candidates must practice the most frequently appearing questions of different sections of the exam. Reading Comprehension section tests the candidates’ English comprehension skills. Questions will be asked in the form of a passage followed by questions related to the passage. So, in this article, we have compiled the most important Reading Comprehension Questions that have maximum chances to come this year in UGC NET December 2019 Exam.
UGC NET Reading Comprehension Questions with Answers
Read the following passage carefully and answer question numbers 1 to 5.
I did that thing recently where you have to sign a big card - which is a horror unto itself, especially as the keeper of the Big Card was leaning over me at the time. Suddenly I was on the spot, a rabbit in the headlights, torn between doing a fun message or some sort of in-joke or a drawing. Instead overwhelmed by the myriad options available to me, I decided to just write: "Good luck, best, Joel".
It was then that I realised, to my horror, that I had forgotten how to write. My entire existence is "tap letters into computer". My shopping lists are hidden in the notes function of my phone. If I need to remember something I send an e-mail to myself. A pen is something I chew when I'm struggling to think. Paper is something I pile beneath my laptop to make it a more comfortable height for me to type on.
A poll of 1,000 teens by the stationers, Bic found that one in 10 don't own a pen, a third have never written a letter, and half of 13 to 19 years - old have never been forced to sit down and write a thank you letter. More than 80 % have never written a love letter, 56 % don't have letter paper at home. And a quarter have never known the unique torture of writing a birthday card. The most a teen ever has to use a pen is on an exam paper.
Bic, have you heard of mobile phones? Have you heard of e-mail, facebook and snap chatting? This is the future. Pens are dead. Paper is dead. Handwriting is a relic.
"Handwriting is one of the most creative outlets we have and should be given the same importance as other art forms such as sketching, painting or photography."
Answer the following questions:
1. When confronted with signing a big card, the author felt like "a rabbit in the headlight". What does this phrase mean?
(1) A state of confusion
(2) A state of pleasure
(3) A state of anxiety
(4) A state of pain
2. According to the author, which one is not the most creative outlet of pursuit?
3. The entire existence of the author revolves round:
(b) Mobile phone
Identify the correct answer from the codes given below:
(1) (b) only
(2) (a) and (b) only
(3) (a), (b) and (c)
(4) (b) and (c) only
4. How many teens, as per the Bic survey, do not own a pen?
5. What is the main concern of the author?
(1) That the teens use social networks for communication.
(2) That the teens use mobile phones.
(3) That the teens use computer.
(4) That the teens have forgotten the art of handwriting.
Read the following passage carefully and answer question numbers from 6 to 11:
In terms of labour, for decades the relatively low cost and high quality of Japanese workers conferred considerable competitive advantage across numerous durable goods and consumerelectronics industries (eg. Machinery, automobiles, televisions, radios). Then labour-based advantages shifted to South Korea, then to Malaysia, Mexico and other nations. Today, China appears to be capitalizing best on the basis of labour. Japanese firms still remain competitive in markets for such durable goods, electronics and other products, but the labour force is no longer sufficient for competitive advantage over manufacturers in other industrializing nations. Such shifting of labour-based advantage is clearly not limited to manufacturing industries. Today, a huge number of IT and service jobs are moving from Europe and North America to India, Singapore, and like countries with relatively well-educated, low-cost workforces possessing technical skills. However, as educational levels and technical skills continue to rise in other countries, India, Singapore, and like nations enjoying labour-based competitive advantage today are likely to find such advantage cannot be sustained through emergence of new competitors.
In terms of capital, for centuries the days of gold coins and later even paper money restricted financial flows. Subsequently regional concentrations were formed where large banks, industries and markets coalesced. But today capital flows internationally at rapid speed. Global commerce no longer requires regional interactions among business players. Regional capital concentrations in places such as New York, London and Tokyo still persist, of course, but the capital concentrated there is no longer sufficient for competitive advantage over other capitalists distributed worldwide. Only if an organization is able to combine, integrate and apply its resources (eg. Land, labour, capital, IT) in an effective manner that is not readily imitable by competitors can such an organization enjoy competitive advantage sustainable overtime.
In a knowledge-based theory of the firm, this idea is extended to view organizational knowledge as a resource with atleast the same level of power and importance as the traditional economic inputs. An organization with superior knowledge can achieve competitive advantage in markets that appreciate the application of such knowledge. Semiconductors, genetic engineering, pharmaceuticals, software, military warfare, and like knowledge-intensive competitive arenas provide both time-proven and current examples. Consider semiconductors (e.g. computer chips), which are made principally of sand and common metals. These ubiquitous and powerful electronic devices are designed within common office buildings, using commercially available tools, and fabricated within factories in many industrialized nations. Hence, land is not the key competitive resource in the semiconductor industry.
Based on the passage answer the following questions:
6. Which country enjoyed competitive advantages in automobile industry for decades?
(1) South Korea
7. Why labour-based competitive advantages of India and Singapore cannot be sustained in IT and service sectors?
(1) Due to diminishing levels of skill.
(2) Due to capital-intensive technology making inroads.
(3) Because of new competitors.
(4) Because of shifting of labour-based advantage in manufacturing industries.
8. How can an organisation enjoy competitive advantage sustainable overtime?
(1) Through regional capital flows.
(2) Through regional interactions among business players.
(3) By making large banks, industries and markets coalesced.
(4) By effective use of various instrumentalities.
9. What is required to ensure competitive advantages in specific markets?
(1) Access to capital
(2) Common office buildings
(3) Superior knowledge
(4) Common metals
10. The passage also mentions about the trend of
(1) Global financial flow
(2) Absence of competition in manufacturing industry
(3) Regionalisation of capitalists
(4) Organizational incompatibility
11. What does the author lay stress on in the passage?
(1) International commerce
(2) Labour-Intensive industries
(3) Capital resource management
(4) Knowledge-driven competitive advantage
Read the following passage carefully and answer questions from 12 to 17:
The last great war, which nearly shook the foundations of the modern world, had little impact on Indian literature beyond aggravating the popular revulsion against violence and adding to the growing disillusionment with the ‘humane pretensions’ of the Western World. This was eloquently voiced in Tagore’s later poems and his last testament, Crisis in Civilisation. The Indian intelligentsia was in a state of moral dilemma. On the one hand, it could not help sympathising with England’s dogged courage in the hour of peril, with the Russians fighting with their backs to the wall against the ruthless Nazi hordes, and with China groaning under the heel of Japanese militarism; on the other hand, their own country was practically under military occupation of their own soil, and an Indian army under Subhas Bose was trying from the opposite camp to liberate their country. No creative impulse could issue from such confusion of loyalties. One would imagine that the achievement of Indian independence in 1947, which came in the wake of the Allies’ victory and was followed by the collapse of colonialism in the neighbouring countries of South-East Asia, would have released an upsurge of creative energy. No doubt it did, but unfortunately it was soon submerged in the great agony of partition, with its inhuman slaughter of the innocents and the uprooting of millions of people from their homeland, followed by the martyrdom of Mahatma Gandhi. These tragedies, along with Pakistan’s invasion of Kashmir and its later atrocities in Bangladesh, did indeed provoke a poignant writing, particularly in the languages of the regions most affected, Bengali, Hindi, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Sindhi and Urdu. But poignant or passionate writing does not by itself make great literature. What reserves of enthusiasm and confidence survived these disasters have been mainly absorbed in the task of national reconstruction and economic development. Great literature has always emerged out of chains of convulsions. Indian literature is richer today in volume, range and variety than it ever was in the past.
Based on the passage answer the following questions from 12 to 17:
12. What was the impact of the last great war on Indian literature?
(1) It had no impact.
(2) It aggravated popular revulsion against violence.
(3) It shook the foundations of literature.
(4) It offered eloquent support to the Western World.
13. What did Tagore articulate in his last testament?
(1) Offered support to Subhas Bose.
(2) Exposed the humane pretensions of the Western World.
(3) Expressed loyalty to England.
(4) Encouraged the liberation of countries.
14. What was the stance of Indian intelligentsia during the period of great war?
(1) Indifference to Russia’s plight.
(2) They favoured Japanese militarism.
(3) They prompted creativity out of confused loyalties.
(4) They expressed sympathy for England’s dogged courage.
15. Identify the factor responsible for the submergence of creative energy in Indian literature.
(1) Military occupation of one’s own soil.
(2) Resistance to colonial occupation.
(3) Great agony of partition.
(4) Victory of Allies.
16. What was the aftermath that survived tragedies in Kashmir and Bangladesh?
(1) Suspicion of other countries
(2) Continuance of rivalry
(3) Menace of war
(4) National reconstruction
17. The passage has the message that
(1) Disasters are inevitable.
(2) Great literature emerges out of chains of convulsions.
(3) Indian literature does not have a marked landscape.
(4) Literature has no relation with war and independence.
Read the passage carefully and answer question numbers from 18 to 23.
Climate change is considered to be one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity, natural resources and physical infrastructure. Global climate varies naturally. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the effects of climate change have already been observed, and scientific findings indicate that precautionary and prompt action is necessary. Vulnerability to climate change is not just a function of geography or dependence on natural resources; it also has social, economic and political dimensions which influence how climate change affects different groups. Poor people rarely have insurance to cover loss of property due to natural calamities i.e. drought, floods, super cyclones etc. The poor communities are already struggling to cope with the existing challenges of poverty and climate variability and climate change could push many beyond their ability to cope or even survive. It is vital that these communities are helped to adapt to the changing dynamics of nature. Adaptation is a process through which societies make themselves better able to cope with an uncertain future. Adapting to climate change entails taking the right measures to reduce the negative effects of climate change (or exploit the positive ones) by making the appropriate adjustments and changes. These range from technological options such as increased sea defences or flood - proof houses on stilts to behavioural change at the individual level, such as reducing water use in times of drought. Other strategies include early warning systems for extreme events, better water management, improved risk management, various insurance options and biodiversity conservation. Because of the speed at which climate change is happening due to global temperature rise, it is urgent that the vulnerability of developing countries to climate change is reduced and their capacity to adapt is increased and national adaptation plans are implemented. Adapting to climate change will entail adjustments and changes at every level from community to national and international. Communities must build their resilience, including adopting appropriate technologies while making the most of traditional knowledge, and diversifying their livelihoods to cope with current and future climate stress. Local coping strategies and knowledge need to be used in synergy with government and local interventions. The need of adaptation interventions depends on national circumstances. There is a large body of knowledge and experience within local communities on coping with climatic variability and extreme weather events. Local communities have always aimed to adapt to variations in their climate. To do so, they have made preparations based on their resources and their knowledge accumulated through experience of past weather patterns. This includes times when they have also been forced to react to and recover from extreme events, such as floods, drought and hurricanes. Local coping strategies are an important element of planning for adaptation. Climate change is leading communities to experience climatic extremes more frequently, as well as new climate conditions and extremes. Traditional knowledge can help to provide efficient, appropriate and time - tested ways of advising and enabling adaptation to climate change in communities who are feeling the effects of climate changes due to global warming.
18. Given below are the factors of vulnerability of poor people to climate change. Select the code that contains the correct answer.
(a) Their dependence on natural resources
(b) Geographical attributes
(c) Lack of financial resources
(d) Lack of traditional knowledge
(1) (a), (b) and (c)
(2) (b), (c) and (d)
(3) (a), (b), (c) and (d)
(4) (c) only
19. Adaptation as a process enables societies to cope with:
(a) An uncertain future
(b) Adjustments and changes
(c) Negative impact of climate change
(d) Positive impact of climate change
Select the most appropriate answer from the following code:
(1) (a), (b), (c) and (d)
(2) (a) and (c)
(3) (b), (c) and (d)
(4) (c) only
20. To address the challenge of climate change, developing countries urgently require:
(1) Imposition of climate change tax
(2) Implementation of national adaptation policy at their level
(3) Adoption of short-term plans
(4) Adoption of technological solutions
21. The traditional knowledge should be used through:
(1) Its dissemination
(2) Improvement in national circumstances
(3) Synergy between government and local interventions
(4) Modern technology
22. The main focus of the passage is on:
(1) Combining traditional knowledge with appropriate technology
(2) Co-ordination between regional and national efforts
(3) Adaptation to climate change
(4) Social dimensions of climate change
Read the following passage carefully and answer questions from 23 to 27:
If India has to develop her internal strengths, the nation has to focus on the technological imperatives, keeping in mind three dynamic dimensions: the people, the overall economy and the strategic interests. These technological imperatives also take into account a ‘fourth’ dimension, time, an offshoot of modern day dynamism in business, trade, and technology that leads to continually shifting targets. We believe that technological strengths are especially crucial in dealing with this fourth dimension underlying continuous change in the aspirations of the people, the economy in the global context, and the strategic interests. The progress of technology lies at the heart of human history. Technological strengths are the key to creating more productive employment in an increasingly competitive market place and to continually upgrade human skills. Without a pervasive use of technologies, we cannot achieve overall development of our people in the years to come. The direct linkages of technology to the nation’s strategic strengths are becoming more and more clear, especially since 1990s. India’s own strength in a number of core areas still puts it in a position of reasonable strength in geo-political context. Any nation aspiring to become a developed one needs to have strengths in various strategic technologies and also the ability to continually upgrade them through its own creative strengths. For people-oriented actions as well, whether for the creation of large scale productive employment or for ensuring nutritional and health security for people, or for better living conditions, technology is the only vital input. The absence of greater technological impetus could lead to lower productivity and wastage of precious natural resources. Activities with low productivity or low value addition, in the final analysis hurt the poorest most. The technological imperatives to lift our people to a new life, and to a life they are entitled to is important. India, aspiring to become a major economic power in terms of trade and increase in GDP, cannot succeed on the strength of turnkey projects designed and built abroad or only through large-scale imports of plant machinery, equipment and know how. Even while being alive to the short-term realities, medium and long-term strategies to develop core technological strengths within our industry are vital for envisioning a developed India.
23. According to the above passage, which of the following are indicative of the fourth dimension?
(a) Aspirations of people
(b) Modern day dynamism
(c) Economy in the global context
(d) Strategic interests
(1) (a), (b) and (c) only
(2) (b), (c) and (d) only
(3) (a), (c) and (d) only
(4) (a), (b) and (d) only
24. More productive employment demands:
(1) Pervasive use of technology
(2) Limiting competitive market place
(3) Geo-political considerations
(4) Large industries
25. Absence of technology would lead to:
(a) Less pollution
(b) Wastage of precious natural resources
(c) Low value addition
(d) Hurting the poorest most
(1) (a), (b) and (c) only
(2) (b), (c) and (d) only
(3) (a), (b) and (d) only
(4) (a), (c) and (d) only
26. The advantage of technological inputs would result in:
(1) Unbridled technological growth
(2) Importing plant machinery
(3) Sidelining environmental issues
(4) Lifting our people to a life of dignity
27. Envisioning a developed India requires:
(1) Aspiration to become a major economic player
(2) Dependence upon projects designed abroad
(3) Focus on short-term projects
(4) Development of core technological strengths