UPSC (IAS) 2021 Prelims: Most Important Topics from UPSC Syllabus (Social Issues 2020-21)
UPSC CSE 2021 Prelims is to be conducted in the coming weekend. The candidates can download their UPSC Admit Card from the link shared here. Also the aspirants are now in a mode to revise their UPSC Syllabus and prepare for CSAT as it is the last moment. Jagran Josh has brought several last minute important topics in Social Issues from the news of 2020-21 which would be helpful for the candidates of UPSC IAS Prelims 2021. Take a look below.
Major Highlights in Social Issues for UPSC Civil Services Prelims 2021:
Study the following most important points, facts and figures important from the point of view of UPSC prelims to be conducted on 10th October 2021. The topics discussed here are based on the recent questions put up by UPSC in previous years.
1. Women and Child Health:
Under-five mortality rate (U5MR):
It is the probability of dying between birth and 5 years of age, expressed per 1,000 live births.
The 2019 Overall mortality rate was 38 which was 93 in 1990.
Infant mortality rate (IMR):
It is the number of deaths under 1 year of age occurring for 1000 live births in a given year.
IMR has declined by 35% in the past ten years in rural areas and by 32% in the Urban areas.
Madhya Pradesh has highest IMR at 48 and Nagaland lowest at 4
Death rate (DR):
It is the number of deaths per 1000 people per year.
Chhattisgarh has the highest death rate at 8 and Delhi has a rate of 3.3.
Sex ratio at birth (SRB):
It is the number of male births per female births in a year. It was recorded to be 1112 in 2018. In 2020, the sex ratio of the total population in India is 108.18 males per 100 females.
Safe Motherhood Assurance (SUMAN):
It has been launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare for zero preventable maternal and Newborn deaths.
Under the scheme, free healthcare benefits are provided to pregnant women. It is also available to lactating mothers (up to 6 months after delivery), and all sick newborns.
It also provides:
- Zero expense delivery and C-section facility in case of pregnancy complications.
- Free transport to pregnant women from home to health facility and back.
- Zero-tolerance for denial of services at public health facilities.
2. Female Education in India:
- Females make up 48.6% of the total enrolment in higher education
- 40% of graduates are women in India as compared to 35% of the global average as per STEM.
- 14% of researchers in India are women Which is low as compared to 30% of the global average.
- The Department of Science & Technology (DST) and IBM India have joined hands for two collaborations promoting STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) learning among students.
- The first collaboration is called DST’s ‘Vigyan Jyoti’ and the second collaboration is with Vigyan Prasar. It will build and run a technology-driven interactivity platform named ‘Engage With Science’.
It is a scheme launched by the Ministry of Education. It addresses the lower enrolment ratio of girl students in science and engineering colleges. It works to enhance teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics at Senior Secondary level
Gender Advancement for Transforming Institutions (GATI):
This scheme comes under DST and is an attempt to bring about gender balance in the institutions.
3. Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act (PWDVA):
It is a civil law which focuses on the reliefs given to the aggrieved woman such as compensation, protection, right to residence in the shared household. The act would protect domestic violence against women in four categories:
- Sexual Violence
- Physical Violence
- Economic Violence
- Verbal and Emotional Violence
The Act is inaccordance with UN Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW),ratified by India in 1993