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UPSC IAS Prelims 2021: Important Questions on Environment - Topic 1 (Biodiversity)

Sakshi Saroha

UPSC IAS 2021:  UPSC Civil Service Prelims 2021 exam is scheduled for June 27. Considering the dynamic exam syllabus, preparing for the exam comes with different kinds of hurdles. Some aspirants struggle at memorizing the facts while others face difficulty in solving questions even from well-prepared topics. To help the aspirants’ shred exam fear and be fluent with the exam pattern, Jagran Josh has come up with this new “Important Questions and Answers for Prelims” series. 

Each day, the subject experts at Jagran Josh will bring a list of 10 important questions from one broad topic of each subject. Questions will be accompanied by the correct answer and an attached explanation. Aspirants can solve these topic-wise important questions to test their preparation level.

Also Check: Important Topics from Environment & Ecology Syllabus

UPSC Prelims Environment and Ecology - Topic 1: Biodiversity

Ques 1: Invasive species are dangerous because

a) they are almost all predators, disturbing ecological relationships by eating other species.

b) they carry viruses that spread disease in new ecosystems.

c) the native species have not evolved with these organisms.

d) they tend to be secretive, going unnoticed in their new ecosystems.

Ans: c

Explanation:

Invasive species cause harm to wildlife in many ways. When a new and aggressive species is introduced into an ecosystem, it may not have any natural predators or controls. It can breed and spread quickly, taking over an area.

Ques 2: Consider the following statements:

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  1. India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries of the world.
  2. In general, species diversity decreases as we move away from the equator towards the poles.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: c

Explanation:

India's share of the global species diversity is an impressive 8.1 percent. That is what makes our country one of the 12 mega diversity countries of the world. Nearly 45,000 species of plants and twice as many animals have been recorded from India.

In general, species diversity decreases as we move away from the equator towards the poles. Colombia located near the equator has nearly 1,400 species of birds while New York at 41° N has 105 species and Greenland at 71° N only 56 species.

Ques 3: Which of the following forms ‘The Evil Quartet’ for biodiversity losses:

  1. Habitat loss and fragmentation
  2. Co-extinctions
  3. Over-exploitation

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 1 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) All of the above

Ans: d

Also Read:  How to Revise Environment & Ecology Syllabus Before Exam?

Explanation:

The accelerated rates of species extinctions that the world is facing now are largely due to human activities. There are four major causes:

• Habitat loss and fragmentation

• Over-exploitation

• Alien species invasions

• Co-extinctions

Ques 4: Which of the following are examples of Ex-situ conservation?

  1. Zoological parks
  2. botanical gardens
  3. Habitat restoration
  4. Seed banks

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 1 and 3 only

c) 1, 2 and 4 only

d) 2, 3 and 4 only

Ans: c

Explanation:

Ex-situ Conservation – In this approach, threatened animals and plants are taken out of their natural habitat and placed in a special setting where they can be protected and given special care. Zoological parks, botanical gardens, and wildlife safari parks serve this purpose. 

When we conserve and protect the whole ecosystem, its biodiversity at all levels is protected – we save the entire forest to save the tiger. This approach is called in situ (on-site) conservation. Habitat restoration is an In-situ conservation method. 

Ques 5: Which of the following is NOT an endangered animal species of India?

  1. The Pig Nosed Frog
  2. The Pink Headed Duck
  3. Nilgiri Langur 
  4. Olive Ridley Turtle 
  5. The Great Asiatic Lion

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

a) 1, 2, and 5 only

b) 3 and 4 only

c) 1, 3 and 4 only

d) 2, 3, and 5 only

Ans: a

Explanation:

The Pig Nosed Frog, Pink Headed Duck, and the Great Asiatic Lion are included in the endangered species list of IUCN.

Ques 6: The Pin Valley National Park (PVNP) is located in which state?

a) Jammu & Kashmir (J&K)

b) Arunachal Pradesh

c) Himachal Pradesh

d) Sikkim

Ans: c

Explanation:

The Pin Valley National Park is located within the Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh. The Park forms a natural habitat for a number of endangered animals such as snow leopard and Siberian ibex with its snow laden unexplored higher reaches and slopes.

Ques 7: The Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary (NWS) is located in which state?

a) Maharashtra

b) Himachal Pradesh

c) Jammu & Kashmir

d) Nagaland

Ans: a

Explanation:

The Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary (NWS) is located between the Bhandara district and Gondia district of Maharashtra. 

Ques 8: Which of the following is/are offered by the Gene Sanctuaries?

  1. ex-situ conservation of plant genetic resources
  2. cheap method of germplasm conservation
  3. way to preserve both the wild species and natural ecosystems

Select the correct option from the codes given below:

a) 1 only 

b) 1 & 2 only 

c) 3 only 

d) 2 & 3 only 

Ans: c

Explanation:

Conservation of germplasm under natural conditions is referred to as in situ conservation. This is achieved by protecting the area from human interference; such an area is often called Natural Park or gene sanctuary.

Ques 9: A grasshopper eats grass, a rabbit eats grasshopper and a fox eats the rabbit. The position of grasshopper in the given food chain is of:

a] Primary producer

b] Primary consumer

c] Secondary consumer

d] Tertiary consumer

Ans: b

Explanation:

Primary producers are plants. Primary consumers are which feed directly and only on all or part of living plants. Secondary consumers are which feed only on plant-eating animals. Tertiary or higher-level consumers, which feed only on animal-eating animals. 

Ques 10: Which of the following statements are correct about Himalayan Dry temperate Forest?

1) Precipitation is below 100 cm and is mostly in the form of snow.

2) Coniferous forests with xerophytic shrubs.

Select the correct option from the codes given below:

a) 1 only 

b) 2 only 

c) Both 1 & 2

d) Neither 1 & 2

Ans: c

Explanation:

The Himalayan Dry temperate Forest has low precipitation, which is below 100 cm and is mostly in the form of snow. They consists of Coniferous forests with xerophytic shrubs.

We sincerely hope that the given questions would have helped you in your Prelims preparation. You can also check the below link to keep yourself updated on the latest GK quiz and events. 

GK Quiz on Daily Static and Current Events

Topic-wise Important Questions on Environment & Ecology



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