XAT Analytical Reasoning and Decision Making Practice Questions Set-1
XAT Analytical Reasoning Practice questions Set-1: This practice set has 10 questions with their answers covering topics from the areas of Analytical Reasoning. This Practice set includes the Questions as per the XAT Exam pattern and syllabus.
Directions for (1– 4):
On her walk through the park, Anu collected 50 coloured leaves, all either Banyan or Pine. She sorted them by category when she got home and found the following:
A. The number of Pine leaves with spots is even and positive.
B. The number of Green Pine leaves without any spot equals the number of Green Banyan leaves without spots.
C. All non-green Pine leaves have spots and there are five times as many of them as there are Green spotted Pine leaves.
D. There are no spotted Banyan leaves that are not green.
E. There are exactly 6 green spotted Banyan leaves.
F. There are exactly 22 Banyan leaves that are neither spotted nor green.
1. How many Green Spotted Pine Leaves did she collect?
2. How many Non - Green Spotted Pine Leaves did she collect?
3. How many Green Non – Spotted Banyan Leaves did she collect?
4. How many Pine leaves did she collect?
Direction (5-7): Answer questions on the basis of information given in the following case.
Mr. Abhishek Sharma, a young IT professional, came early to office to assist his boss in the preparation for an important client presentation. When be switched on his computer, he saw an email from Mr. Arora. The email was as follows:
Dear Mr. Sharma,
This email serves as a follow-up of my conversation with you on December 1, 2014. I have already conveyed need for improvement in your behaviour as desired as desired by your project leader and colleagues. They are yet to notice any visible improvements. I am apprehensive that your failure to act may warrant further action leading to dismissal. I will continue to monitor and assess your performance over the next three months to determine whether improvements meet the expectations. At the same time, I would like to re-affirm that you are very valuable for our organization.
Mr. A. Arora
5. Initially, the e-mail distracted Abhishek but he decided to focus on the job. Which of the following options might best explain his decision to do so?
a) Mr. Arora would soon be transferred to another department.
b) Last week, Mr. Abhishek has been assigned to a new team in the same project.
c) Three days back, Mr. Abhishek has been assigned a new project similar to his final year engineering project.
d) His friend has been hospitalized for the last three months.
e) Failing to perform in the client meeting might further complicate things.
6. The scheduled presentation went off smoothly. Back in his cabin, Abhishek read Mr. Arora’s e-mail once more and pondered over it. During the last meeting he tried hard to put forward his explanation but Mr. Arora had not allowed him to speak. Abhishek was thinking of meeting Mr. Arora once again but was doubtful that would help. Incidentally, he had a job offer from a start-up with a comparable salary. If Abhishek was to join the new job, he had to accept the offer within the next two weeks. However, he cannot think of a life without a job. Abhishek was confused!
Which of the following options would be the best move for Abhishek?
a) Talk to Mr. Arora and highlight the initiatives he has taken but at the same time start applying for other jobs.
b) Reject the offer from the start-up. Use the next three months to find a better job, but continue in the present job.
c) Resign from this organization right now.
d) Accept the offer, only if the start-up gives a salary hike, else keep prospecting.
e) Accept the offer with a request to give him a 10% salary hike.
7. After a couple of weeks, Mr. Arora came to know that Abhishek’s project leader Mr. John, a very competent senior executive, may have willfully influenced his team members to file a wrong complaint against Abhishek. Mr. John may have done it because Abhishek has refused to tow John’s line. Mr. Arora also came to know that Abhishek was thinking of quitting this job. He felt regretful about his letter to Abhishek. He wanted to resolve the complicated situation. He was contemplating following five actions in his mind.
I. Talk to Mr. John about Abhishek and convey to him that losing a bright employee would cost the organization dearly.
II. Catch up with Mr. John during coffee break and convey that Abhishek has a very good track record.
III. Chat with Abhishek during coffee break.
IV. Catch up with Abhishek during coffee break and convey that the organization values him.
V. Arrange a meeting among Mr. John, Abhishek and himself to sort out the difference.
Which of the following is the best sequence of actions for resolving the problem?
a) I, III, V
b) II, III, V
c) I, II, IV
d) 1, IV, V
e) III, IV, V
Direction (8-9): Read the following case-let and choose the best alternative for the questions that follow:
Prateek was thinking deeply about a problem that his organization, a business consulting company, faced. Globalization had affected his company like many other companies. Despite the downturn, the current revenues remained healthy. However, Prateek knew it was inevitable that the company could not do business the same way. The complexity of managing the business had increased with time. Consultants were under pressure to deliver good and innovative solutions. The organization had consultants from different age groups having a good mix of domain and industry expertise. It was a flat organization with three levels. The biggest challenge for Prateek was to have consultants with latest knowledge who would also earn revenues. Getting additional business was a challenge as all the consultants were busy and it was very difficult to hire new consultants.
8. Some of the consultants were adept at applying old solutions to new problems. Prateek was not very sure if this would work for long. Some of the clients had complained about the performance of old and reputed consultants. Prateek was mulling over the following five solutions to tackle this problem.
- Decrease time spent on client interaction and increase time spent for generating solutions.
- Increase support staff to help consultants to remain updated.
- Decrease the number of simultaneous projects handled by consultants.
- Make it compulsory for consultants to work on inter-industry and inter-domain problems.
- Recruit more consultants.
Which of the following would be the best sequence of decisions taken by Prateek (starting from immediate to distant)?
d) 4, 3, 2, 1, 5
e) 2, 4, 5, 1, 3
9. After Prateek implemented some of the steps mentioned above, consultants wanted to renegotiate their contract with the organization. It seems that the organization had never mentioned that consultants have to work across industries and domains. Some of the old consultants were reluctant to change their ways, while many of the younger consultants were willing to follow Prateek’s advice. Which of the following decision can be taken by Prateek to handle this situation?
a) Retrench old consultants and recruit young consultants.
b) Pressurize non-conformists by giving preferential treatment to the conformists.
c) Negotiate with the old consultants and communicate that the new rules would apply to the new consultants only.
d) Do nothing and wait for a right solution to emerge, as with time resistance would die down.
e) Discuss the issue in an open house and let solutions emerge democratically.
Explanation: From what is mentioned in the case let, the old consultants seem to have entered into a comfort zone as far as their work is concerned. The fact that the working across industries and domains was not mentioned earlier added to their discomfort in the said scenario. Given that the job requires them to mend their ways, the problem calls for a platform where they can raise their concerns openly. Only option 5 puts forth a viable solution for all the stakeholders involved i.e. the company, the old consultants as well as the younger consultants. Options 1 and 2 are extreme and can very well be avoided. Option 3 is unfair to the younger consultants. Option 4 is passive in nature. Hence, the correct answer is option 5.
10. Prateek was to retire in five years and he wanted to leave behind a legacy. Order the following activities, from the most important to the least important, that Prateek should undertake in next five year:
- Do nothing.
- Set a future direction for the organization in these challenging times.
- Benchmark performance with respect to the best consulting company in industry.
- Empower senior consultants and at the same time seek opinion of all others for handling future challenges.
- Infuse fresh thinking by hiring outsiders.
Choose the best option from the following sequences
e) 2, 5, 4, 3
1. (a) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (e) 6. (e) 7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (e) 10. (e)
Explanation for (1– 4): Each type of leave is divided into two sections green and non-green and these two sections are further subdivided into spotted and non-spotted.
Let the number of Green Pine leaves be 2n, where n is any natural number, then the following chart represents the information given in the question:
Given, 2n + x + 10n + 0 + 6 + x + 0 + 22 = 50
12n + 2 x = 22
6n + x = 11
The above relationship is valid only if n = 1 and x = 5.
Hence, Number of Pine leaves = 2 × 1 + 5 + 10 × 1 = 17
Green Spotted Pine Leaves = 2
Non - Green Spotted Pine Leaves = 10
Green Non – Spotted Banyan Leaves = 5
Explanation 5: Since the mail says that Abhishek’s performance is under scrutiny, it is imperative for him to conduct himself cautiously in front of his boss. In order to do so, his first step should be to perform well in the tasks assigned to him. Getting demoralized by the letter and performing badly will not help him simplify things. Hence, option 5 best explains his decision to focus on his job. So, eliminate options 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Hence, the correct answer is option 5.
Explanation 6: Option 1 is too risky as he cannot be sure if his position in the company is safe. Hence, he cannot rely on his discussion with Mr. Arora. The passage further mentions that Mr. Arora did not allowed him to even speak. Also, applying simultaneously for other jobs won’t ensure the certainty of securing a worthy job. Eliminate option 1. Option 2 is a poor decision as the offer had opened the door for quitting the current company with a job in hand. Eliminate option 2.
Option 3 is a hasty course of action as the passage mentions that he cannot think of a life without a job. Eliminate option 3. Option 4 is not a wise approach as demanding a salary hike based on which he would accept the job offer, holds the chance of driving away the only feasible opportunity he had. Option 5 is a rational move, as accepting the offer with a request for a 10% salary hike will increase his chances of acquiring a worthy job after quitting his current job. Hence, the correct answer is option 5.
Explanation 7: Since there has been a misunderstanding between Mr. John and Abhishek, it is best to straighten out things between the two. In order to do so, Mr. Pate! Should communicate Abhishek’s plan of quitting the job to Mr. John and make him realize his mistake of undermining Abhishek’s spirit which has led the organization on the path of losing a bright employee. Eliminate options 2 and 5.
Explanation 8: The consultants have been mentioned as giving old solutions to new problems and the clients have complained about the same. Hence, the first course of action would be making it compulsory for them to be versatile in their work methods as mentioned in statement 4. Secondly, in-order for them to perform better, their work load needs to be reduced and new as well as competent support staff should be hired to help the consultants stay adept with the latest developments in the industry. This could be followed by devoting more time towards the finding of solutions and spending less time on client interactions. Given that hiring new people has been mentioned as a challenge, which would be one of the last courses of action to embark.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.
Explanation 9: From what is mentioned in the case let, the old consultants seem to have entered into a comfort zone as far as their work is concerned. The fact that the working across industries and domains was not mentioned earlier added to their discomfort in the said scenario. Given that the job requires them to mend their ways, the problem calls for a platform where they can raise their concerns openly. Only option 5 puts forth a viable solution for all the stakeholders involved i.e. the company, the old consultants as well as the younger consultants. Options 1 and 2 are extreme and can very well be avoided. Option 3 is unfair to the younger consultants. Option 4 is passive in nature. Hence, the correct answer is option 5.
Explanation 10: Statement 1 as a course of action is out of question, given that Prateek has been mentioned as being concerned about the well-being of his company. Eliminate options 1, 3 and 4. The only difference between options 2 and 5 is that option 2 gives benchmarking the performance of the company with the best in the industry priority, while option 5 does not. Given that Prateek wants to set the situation straight within the next five years, statement 3 should be one of his first priorities. Hence, the correct answer is option 2.
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