It is literally not possible for a person to mug up or learn the entire dictionary or encyclopedia. Therefore, an attempt to practice passages from books and newspapers should be made to understand and recognize words as well as their usage. In order to help you enrich your vocabulary, we are bringing to you a passage from ‘The Economic Times’ (dated January 2nd, 2017) and the difficult words from it. These words are emphasized for you so that you can identify and understand how they are applied in a sentence. These words have been explained at the end of the passage with synonyms and antonyms and its usage as well. Bonne Chance!
Article: A busy 2016 for HRD ministry
From new education policy to the Rohith Vemula suicide incident to key changes in No Detention Policy and a much-talked about change of guard at the helm, HRD ministry remained in news in 2016.
A mid-year reshuffle saw Smriti Irani handing over charge of the ministry to Prakash Javadekar to become Minister of Textiles.
Barely had the year begun, when the biggest of the several huge controversies that hit the HRD ministry - over the suicide of scholar Rohith Vemula in Hyderabad University occurred.
And as the year ended, the ministry readied a series of 12 steps for universities to follow, to ensure such incidents don't happen again.
After Vemula's suicide, Opposition parties gunned for the removal of Irani. Vemula's family said he was a Dalit and the incident gave the Opposition ammunition to attack the Centre in Parliament.
The ministry on its part appointed a judicial commission under retired judge A K Roopanwal, who in his report gave a clean chit to the various functionaries including Irani, while recommending a series of preventive steps.
The report also had its share of controversy as it said that Vemula's Dalit status could not be established.
Another premier institution, Jawaharlal Nehru University, also saw much turmoil after a controversial protest by a group of students. NIT Srinagar too had remain shut for several days after a clash between local and outstation students over a cricket match.
Many of the controversies were a result of campus-related issues, but Irani's combativeness on the social media too turned into headlines.
In one instance she took offence to Bihar Education Minister Ashok Chaudhary addressing her as "dear" while in another she fought with Congress leader Priyanka Chaturvedi, who had put a post about her security.
In another much-talked about social media post, which she signed off as "Aunty National" - an apparent reference to a newspaper's headline about her, Irani talked about her career and challenges, stressed on the need to speak out one's mind and hit out at "intellectuals" who called her "illiterate".
Irani also rebuffed former Cabinet Secretary T S R Subramanian, when he sought that a report on New Education Policy (NEP) prepared by a panel which he headed be made public.
Irani refused to put the report in public domain immediately saying it will not become the "legacy of one individual who seeks a headline".
Soon after taking over, Javadekar said he believes in having a dialogue on various issues so there will be no necessity of agitation.
When asked about his priorities in the new year, he told PTI that it would be "quality, quality and quality of education."
During 2016, several important decisions were also taken.
The CBSE governing body sought compulsory class X Board exam, the go ahead to which may come from the ministry this year.
A new committee which would work on the NEP could also be announced anytime soon. The ministry is also planning to hold a NEET-like single examination for engineering.
It has also decided to amend the RTE Act to allow 'No Detention Policy' to be retained till class V while the IIM Bill is also underway, both legislations which will come up in the new year.
2016 was also a year where the HRD Ministry worked on creating a Higher Education Funding Agency besides creating 20 world class institutions in the country.
The ministry also brought the first ever National Institutional Ranking Framework.
Two Vice Chancellors were also removed during the year.
1. Detention (noun) (अवरोध): is an act for detaining/ confining someone. It is often used as a punishment of being kept in school after school hours.
Synonym: Custody, internment, apprehension, imprisonment
Antonym: Assistance, freedom, liberation, release
Sentence: His notorious activities led hisdetention for another two hours.
2. Helm (noun/verb) (पतवार): refers to the handle of the wheel which controls the direction in which a ship or a boat travels.
Synonym: Reins, command, control, rudder
Sentence: The annual function was well-coordinated. The man at the helm must be an orderly man.
3. Reshuffle (verb) (फेर-बदल): refers to reorganizing or rearranging something.
Synonym: Rework, revamp, readjust, reposition
Antonym: Damage, destroy, hurt, break
Sentence: The reshuffle in the cabinet happens as and when required and foresighted by the prime minister of India.
4. Controversies (noun) (विवाद): is a lot of disagreement or argument about something.
Synonym: Debate, fuss, quarrel, wrangle
Antonym: Agreement, concurrence, accord, compliment
Sentence: Indrani Mukherjee has become a known face due to the controversial news of killing her own daughter.
5. Gunned (verb) (बंदूकचलाना): is to shoot someone with a gun.
Synonym: Fire, hurl, explode, bombard
Antonym: Bear, create, conceal, hold
Sentence: The terrorist ‘Kasab’ gunned down the entire CST station in 26/11 Mumbai terrorist attacks.
6. Ammunition (noun) (गोलाबारूद): refers to objects that can be shot from a weapon, such as bullets or bombs.
Synonym: Armament, cartridge, explosive, napalm
Sentence: Our Indian armed forces are well equipped with the required arms and ammunitions and can handle any unforeseen situations in the country.
7. Turmoil (noun) (उत्पात): is a state of confusion, uncertainty or disorder.
Synonym: Chaos, anxiety, riot, strife
Antonym: Calm, contentment, peace, tranquility
Sentence: The urgent meeting was called for during the sad demise of a renowned politician in order to discuss the ways to handle the state of turmoil.
8. Combativeness (noun) (लड़ाकूपन): refers to having or showing a willingness to fight or argue.
Synonym: Aggression, bellicosity, pugnacity, belligerency
Antonym: Peaceful, agreeable, amicable, pacifist
Sentence: His conduct shows true signs of ruthlessness and combativeness. So, don’t mess with him.
9. Offence (noun) (दोष): is a breach of law or apunishable act.
Synonym: Insult, outrage, violation, misdemeanor
Antonym: Defense, excuse, advocacy, abnegation
Sentence: Driving without a permissible license is a criminal offence.
10. Apparent (adjective) (प्रकट): is something which is apparent or clearly visible.
Synonym: Obvious, clear, evident, glaring
Antonym: Concealed, obscure, secret, vague
Sentence: It was apparent from his behavior that he is completely disinterested in working on this project with us.
Question (1-5): Answer the following as directed
1. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘intellectuals’(बुद्धिजीवियां)
Solution: Option (1)
Explanation: T e given word refers to a person(s) who possess a highly developed intellect or mental capacity.Therefore, from the given options, option (1) is an apt choice as the synonym of the word.
2. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘rebuffed’ (अस्वीकार)
Solution: Option (3)
Explanation: The given word means to refuse to accept a suggestion or a request/offer to help. Among the given options, option (3) is the fitting choice as the synonym of the word.
3. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘legacy’ (पैतृकसंपत्ति)
Solution: Option (3)
Explanation: The given word refers to an amount of money or property left to a person by someone who has died.Hence, from the given options, option (3) is the right choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.
4. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘agitation’(आंदोलन)
Solution: Option (4)
Explanation: The given word depicts a state of anxiety or excitement. Among the given options, option (4) is the right choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.
5. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘underway’(प्रक्रियामें)
Solution: Option (2)
Explanation: The given word refers to something which is happening now. Hence, option (2) is the right choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.
Word of the Day
Meaning (English) – the state of being utterly hopeless or miserable
Meaning (Hindi) – अधम
Synonyms – Forlorn, pitiful
Antonyms – Noble, exalted
Example – A very known actress died in abject poverty.
उदाहरण – एक बहुत ही प्रसिद्धअभिनेत्री का घोर गरीबी में निधन हो गया।