IAS Prelims Exam 2016: CSAT Reading Comprehension Set 7
The Reading Comprehension of General Studies Paper II, CSAT is considered as one of the easiest part of the UPSC IAS Prelims Exam. An UPSC IAS aspirant can score maximum in this section if he/she has done practice well. For the aspirants of Civil Services IAS Prelim Exam 2016, here, we have provided the practice sets of CSAT English Comprehensions:
In Civil Services IAS Prelim Exam, the CSAT paper is qualifying in nature; however, the IAS aspirants should not take this paper as so easy affair to crack. If an aspirant could not qualify the CSAT paper then his/her General Studies paper will not be evaluated irrespective of attempting the GS Paper extraordinarily. So this is important to make sure that your preparation for the CSAT Paper is up to the mark and you will qualify it comfortably.
For the aspirants of Civil Services IAS Prelim Exam 2016, here, we have provided the practice sets of CSAT Reading Comprehensions:
Directions (1 – 6): Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Passage – 1 (3 questions)
The term plutocracy is generally used to describe these two distinct concepts: one of a historical nature and one of a modern political nature. The former indicates the political control of the state by an oligarchy of the wealthy. Examples of such plutocracies include the Roman Republic, some city-states in Ancient Greece, the civilization of Carthage, the Italian city-states/merchant republics of Venice, Florence, Genoa, and pre-WWII Empire of Japan zaibatsus.
Before the equal voting rights movement managed to end it in the early 20th century, many countries used a system where rich persons had more votes than poor. A factory owner may for instance have had 2000 votes while a worker had one or if they were very poor no right to vote at all. Even artificial persons such as companies had voting rights.
One modern, perhaps unique, formalized example of a plutocracy is the City of London. The City (not the whole of modern London but the area of the ancient city, which now mainly comprises the financial district) has a unique electoral system. Most of its voters are representatives of businesses and other bodies that occupy premises in the City. Its ancient wards have very unequal numbers of voters. The principal justification for the non-resident vote is that about 450,000 non-residents constitute the city's day-time population and use most of its services, far outnumbering the City's residents, who are fewer than 10,000.
The second usage of plutocracy is a reference to a disproportionate influence the wealthy have on political process in contemporary society: for example Kevin Phillips, author and political strategist to U.S. President Richard Nixon, argues that the United States is a plutocracy in which there is a "fusion of money and government."[The wealthy minority exerts influence over the political arena via many methods. Most western democracies permit partisan organizations to raise funds for politicians, and political parties frequently accept significant donations from various individuals (either directly or through corporations or advocacy groups). These donations may be part of a cronyist or patronage system, in which major contributors and fund-raisers are rewarded with high-ranking government appointments. While campaign donations need not directly affect the legislative decisions of elected representatives, politicians have a personal interest in serving the needs of their campaign contributors: if they fail to do so, those contributors will likely give their money to candidates who do support their interests in the future. Unless a quid pro quo agreement exists, it is generally legal for politicians to advocate policies favorable to their contributors, or grant appointed government positions to them. In some instances, extremely wealthy individuals have financed their own political campaigns. Many corporations and business interest groups pay lobbyists to maintain constant contact with elected officials, and press them for favorable legislation.
1. What does the word ‘partisan’ mean?
a) A person close to the political party.
b) Showing too much support to a particular person or a group.
c) An organization being run by the son of party president.
d) An organization that gives funds to the party.
The word ‘partisan’ means showing too much support to a particular person or a group.
2. Which of the following is true in context of the above passage?
a) Politicians support their contributors by giving them high positions in the party.
b) Donations received in campaigns bound the politicians to accept all the demands of the contributors.
c) Plutocracy means the rule by some industrialist.
d) Prior to 20th century many countries used a system where rich had more votes than poor.
The opening paragraph of the passage clearly states that prior to the 20th century some countries followed a practice of giving more votes to some individuals who were rich.
3. Which of the following is the best modern day example of plutocracy?
b) The Vatican
c) City of London
The second paragraph of the passage states the example of the city of London.
Passage – 2 (3 questions)
TRIPs agreement provides a comprehensive set of global trade rules for the protection of copyright patents, trademarks, industrial designs, trade secrets, semiconductor layout designs and geographical indications that apply to all the member countries irrespective of their levels of development, natural and human endowments and history. Every member country has been asked by the WTO to amend its national patent law to conform to that universal globalized format for legislation relating to pharmaceutical, agrochemical, food, alloys etc. Under article 65, the developed countries have been asked to change their laws within another five years and the less developed countries within an additional five years. The least developed countries have been asked to make those changes by 2005.
This attempt at global standardization and uniformity by way of TRIPs agreement is in conflict with the main thrust of the Rio Earth Summit of 1992 that set out the conditions for sustainable development. These two reveal two contrasting types of international approaches and norms. While the 1992 Earth Summit and the 1993 Convention on Bio-Diversity (CBD) focused on ‘diversity’ as being fundamental to sustain life an development, TRIPs and WTO are pushing for ‘Conformity’ to International standardized norms on patents, services, labour, investment and what not irrespective of their history, ecology, level of economic development, etc. But despite their diametrically opposed viewpoints, 170 countries signed CBD upholding the need for diversity, and 50 countries signed the TRIPs agreement in 1994 claiming the urgency of uniformity; with a very large element of common names (130) in both.
4. Which of the following statements is/are correct according to the passage?
I. TRIPs agreement doesn’t recommend sustainable development.
II. Underdeveloped countries who are TRIPs members endorse biodiversity over compliance.
III. Both TRIPs and CBD pose two completely different types of protocols.
a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Only III
d) I, II and III
Options I and II cannot be deduced from the passage. Option III is correct as it has been clearly stated in the passage that TRIPs and CBD are two reveal two contrasting types of international approaches and norms.
5. Which of the following statements is/are incorrect according to the passage?
I. TRIPs agreement is not a set of International trade rules.
II. Underdeveloped countries are asked to make the new changes in patent law by 2005.
III. Defending the need for conformity, 170 countries signed CBD.
a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Only III
d) I and III
Explanation: Option I and III are incorrect as TRIPs agreement provides a comprehensive set of global trade rules and 170 countries signed CBD defending the importance of diversity.
6. What are the differences between the CBD and TRIPs norms, according to the page?
a) TRIPs and CBD are applicable to different sectors altogether.
b) TRIPs and CBD are two different forms of the same protocols of WTO
c) As CBD recommends ‘diversity’ for sustainable development, TRIPs want countries to stick to international norms without considering diversity.
d) Only a few clauses of TRIPs and CBD differ, otherwise the same.
It can be directly inferred from the passage that CBD recommends ‘diversity’ for sustainable development, TRIPs want countries to stick to international norms without considering diversity.