UPSC: UPSC offers Hindi as an optional subject in the UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam. The Hindi Literature optional syllabus includes the development of the Devanagari script from ancient scripts used in the subcontinent, the development of Hindi as the lingua franca of the country during the freedom movement, and Hindi grammar in its entirety. It also focuses on literary criticism of various works in Hindi and a number of prominent writers and their works. Hindi has a number of dialects, the literature of which are included in the UPSC Syllabus. Candidates with a strong Hindi literature academic background and who have an interest in reading novels and poetry collections should take up Hindi Literature as optional. Both the papers of Hindi literature optional should be attempted in the Hindi language only.
UPSC Optional Syllabus for Hindi Literature Paper I
1.History of Hindi Language and Nagari Lipi.
- Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta & Arambhik Hindi.
- Development of Braj and Awadhi as literary language during the medieval period.
- Early form of Khari-boli in Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Khusero, Sant Sahitya, Rahim etc. and Dakhni Hindi.
- Development of Khari-boli and Nagari Lipi during the 19th Century.
- Standardization of Hindi Bhasha & Nagari Lipi.
- Development of Hindi as national Language during freedom movement.
- The development of Hindi as a National Language of Union of India.
- Scientific & Technical development of Hindi Language.
- Prominent dialects of Hindi and their inter relationship.
- Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform & Standard form of Hindi.
- Grammatical structure of Standard Hindi.
- History of Hindi Literature.
- The relevance and importance of Hindi literature and tradition of writing History of Hindi Literature.
- Literary trends of the following four periods of history of Hindi Literature.
A : Adikal-Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya.Prominent poets-Chandvardai, Khusaro, Hemchandra, Vidyapati.
B : Bhaktikal-Sant Kavyadhara, Sufi Kavyadhara, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram Bhaktidhara.
Prominent Poets-Kabir, Jayasi, Sur & Tulsi.
C: Ritikal-Ritikavya, Ritibaddhakavya & Riti Mukta Kavya.
Prominent Poets-Keshav, Bihari, Padmakar and Ghananand.
D : Adhunik Kal
- Renaissance, the development of Prose, Bharatendu Mandal.
- Prominent Writers : Bharatendu, Bal Krishna Bhatt & Pratap Narain Mishra.
- Prominent trends of modern Hindi Poetry : Chhayavad, Pragativad, Proyogvad, Nai Kavita, Navgeet and Contemporary poetry and Janvadi Kavita.
Prominent Poets : Maithili Sharan Gupta, Prasad, Nirala, Mahadevi, Dinkar, Agyeya, Muktibodh, Nagarjun.
- Katha Sahitya
- Upanyas & Realism
- The origin and development of Hindi Novels.
- Prominent Novelists : Premchand, Jainendra, Yashpal, Renu and Bhism Sahani.
- The origin and development of Hindi short story.
- Prominent short Story Writers : Premchand, Prasad, Agyeya, Mohan Rakesh & Krishna Shobti.
- Drama & Theatre
- The origin & Development of Hindi Drama.
- Prominent Dramatists : Bharatendu, Prasad, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Ram Kumar Verma, Mohan Rakesh.
- The development of Hindi Theature.
- The origin and development of Hindi criticism : Saiddhantik, Vyavharik, Pragativadi, Manovishleshanvadi & Nai Alochana.
- Prominent critics : Ramchandra Shukla, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma & Nagendra.
- The other forms of Hindi prose-Lalit Nibandh, Rekhachitra, Sansmaran, Yatra-vrittant.
UPSC Optional Syllabus for Hindi Literature Paper-II
This examination paper will require first-hand reading of prescribed texts and will test the critical ability of the candidates.
- Kabir : Kabir Granthawali, Ed, Shyam Sundar Das (First hundred Sakhis.)
- Surdas : Bhramar Gitsar, Ed. Ramchandra Shukla (First hundred Padas)
- Tulsidas : Ramchrit Manas (Sundar Kand) Kavitawali (Uttar Kand).
- Jayasi : Padmawat Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (Sinhal Dwip Khand & Nagmativiyog Khand)
- Bihari : Bihari Ratnakar Ed. Jagnnath Prasad Ratnakar (First 100 Dohas)
- Maithili Sharan Gupta : Bharat Bharati
- Prasad : Kamayani (Chinta and Sharddha Sarg)
- Nirala : Rag-Virag, Ed. Ram Vilas Sharma (Ram Ki Shakti Puja & Kukurmutta).
- Dinkar : Kurushetra
- Agyeya : Angan Ke Par Dwar (Asadhya Vina)
- Muktiboth : Brahma Rakshas
- Nagarjun : Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, Akal Ke Bad, Harijan Gatha.
- Bharatendu : Bharat Durdasha
- Mohan Rakesh : Ashad Ka Ek Din
- Ramchandra Shukla : Chintamani (Part I)
- (Kavita Kya Hai] Shraddha Aur Bhakti)
- Dr. Satyendra : Nibandh Nilaya-Bal Krishna Bhatt, Premchand, Gulab Rai, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma, Agyeya, Kuber Nath Rai.
- Premchand : Godan, Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai, Manjusha - Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai
- Prasad : Skandgupta
- Yashpal : Divya
- Phaniswar Nath Renu : Maila Anchal
- Mannu Bhandari : Mahabhoj
- Rajendra Yadav : Ek Dunia Samanantar (All Stories)
It is to be noted that all the answers for the Hindi literature optional paper should be attempted in the Hindi language only. The optional subject score plays an important role in the Mains marksheet as the marks scored in this paper help the aspirants to enhance their overall Mains score.