# UPSC IAS Prelims 2021: Important Questions on Physical Geography - Topic 5: Climatology

Check 10 most important questions on the Climatology topic of Indian Geography. Aspirants of UPSC Civil Services Prelims 2021 exams can solve these questions to test their knowledge on this topic of Geography.

Created On: Feb 24, 2021 19:12 IST
UPSC IAS Prelims exam important Questions on Physical Geography Climatology

Climatology is one of the most important components of the UPSC Geography Prelims syllabus. You can expect at least 3-4 questions in the Prelims exam from the Physical geography section. Climatology is studied in various fields of science from geography, environment to ecology. Questions on this topic are often asked in the UPSC IAS Prelims exam. To help the aspirants in their preparation, we have provided the 10 most important questions from the Climatology topic of Indian Geography for UPSC Prelims 2021.

Also Read: Important Topics to study from Indian Physical Geography

Ques 1: The air that contains moisture to its full capacity :

(a) Relative humidity (

(b) Specific humidity

1. c) Absolute humidity

(d) Saturated air

Ans: a

 Explanation: The actual amount of the water vapour present in the atmosphere is known as the absolute humidity. The percentage of moisture present in the atmosphere as compared to its full capacity at a given temperature is known as the relative humidity.

Ques 2: Consider the following statements:

1. Windward mountain slopes receive less precipitation as compared to leeward slopes.
2. In the western parts of cool temperate regions, precipitation is distributed evenly throughout the year.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: b

 Explanation: Windward mountain slopes receive abundant precipitation, while leeward slopes and adjacent low lands fall in rain-shadow.

Ques 3: Consider the following statements regarding Polar Vortex:

1. It is caused by a blast of Antarctic air, which is a result of a “polar vortex” event.
2. It was also known as polar pig.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: a

 Explanation: This is caused by a blast of Arctic air, which is a result of a “polar vortex” event. The polar vortex is a large area of low pressure and cold air surrounding both of the Earth’s poles. It was also known as the Polar Pig.

Ques 4: What do you understand by Storm Surge?

(a) It is an abnormal rise of sea level near the coast caused by a severe tropical cyclone.

(b) It is mid-latitude depressions, temperate cyclones, frontal depressions and wave cyclones.

(c) It is an abnormal rise of sea level near the coast caused by a severe tropical cyclone.

(d) It is any low-pressure area with winds spiralling inwards.

Ans: c

 Explanation: Storm Surge: It is an abnormal rise of sea level near the coast caused by a severe tropical cyclone. Due to storm surge sea water inundates low lying areas of coastal regions drowning human beings and livestock, causes eroding beaches and embankments, destroys vegetation and leads to reduction of soil fertility.

Ques 5: Examine the following statements and select the correct answer using the code given below.

1. Gases in the heterosphere are not evenly mixed
2. Troposphere contains over 90% of the earth's water vapour
3. Hydrogen is confined to lower layers of the atmosphere
4. Temperature at troop pause is less at the equator than at the poles

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1, 2 and 4 only

(c) 2, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 3 and 4 only

Ans: b

 Explanation: Only the lightest gases—mostly oxygen, helium, and hydrogen—are found in Mesosphere.

Ques 6: What is the exact sequence of atmospheric layers in ascending order from the surface of the earth?

(a) Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Ionosphere

(b) Troposphere, Exosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere

(c) Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Exosphere, Troposphere

(d)Ionosphere, Troposphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere

Ans: a

 Explanation: Moving upward from ground level, these layers are named the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere.

Ques 7: Which of the following fact about dust particles in the atmosphere is/are correct?

1. They act as hydroscopic nuclei around which water vapour condenses to produce cloud.
2. They produce dawn and dusk.

III. They have no role in the apparent colour of the sky.

(a) I and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) 1 and 3 only

Ans: a

 Explanation: The sky appears red because small particles of dust, pollution, or other aerosols also scatter blue light, leaving more purely red and yellow light to go through the atmosphere.

Ques 8: The earth's albedo means:

(a) Solar radiation absorbed by the earth's surface.

(b) Solar radiation absorbed by the atmosphere.

(c) Solar radiation reflected back by the earth's surface to the space.

(d) Ratio between the total solar radiation falling upon a surface and amount reflected in percentage,

Ans: d

 Explanation: Albedo is a non-dimensional, unitless quantity that indicates how well a surface reflects solar energy. Albedo varies between 0 and 1. Albedo commonly refers to the "whiteness" of a surface, with 0 meaning black and 1 meaning white.

Ques 9: Which of the following is/are the consequences of El-Nino?

1. Delay in onset of monsoon in India.
2. Reduction in amount of planktons which in turn reduces fishes.
3. It is majorly an oceanic phenomenon which is the appearance of warm current off Peru coast.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

(a).Only 1

(b).Only 1 and 2

(c).Only 2 and 3

)d).1,2 and 3

Ans: b

 Explanation: The system involves oceanic and atmospheric phenomena with the appearance of warm currents off the coast of Peru in the Eastern Pacific and affects weather in many places including India. This results in: (i) the distortion of equatorial atmospheric circulation; (ii) irregularities in the evaporation of sea water; (iii) reduction in the amount of planktons which further reduces the number of fish in the sea. EI-Nino is used in India for forecasting long range monsoon rainfall. In 1990-91, there was a wild EI-Nino event and the onset of southwest monsoon was delayed over most parts of the country ranging from five to twelve days.

Ques 10: Consider the following statements

1. Loo winds are hot, moist oppressing winds blowing in northern plains.
2. Most part of central highlands and Meghalaya plateau is influenced by loo winds.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

(a). Only 1

(b). Only 2

(c). Both 1 and 2

(d). Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: d

 Explanation: Loo- Hot, dry and oppressing winds blowing in the Northern plains from Punjab to Bihar with higher intensity between Delhi and Patna.

We sincerely hope that the given questions would have helped you in your Prelims preparation. You can also check the below link to keep yourself updated on the latest GK quiz and events.

GK Quiz on Daily Static and Current Events

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