Apollo 11 space mission: Google Doodle commemorates NASA’s historic moon landing mission, all you need to know

Apollo 11 space mission: Google commemorated the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11 space mission with a video doodle on July 19. Apollo 11 was the first-ever mission to land on the Moon's surface. Apollo 11 astronaut, Neil Armstrong became the first person in history to walk on the Moon on July 21. The Google Doodle captures the historic journey of Apollo 11 with a short video that has a narration by Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins in the background.

Apollo 11 launch date: July 16, 1969

Apollo 11 moon landing:
July 20, 1969

Apollo 11 crew: Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins

Apollo 11 launch

Apollo 11 space mission was launched by Saturn V rocket from Kennedy Space Center on July 16, 1969. The mission was the fifth manned mission of NASA's Apollo program. Apollo 11 comprised a command module, service module and a lunar module.

Command module: Called Columbia, the module was the only one that returned to earth, it comprised a cabin for the three astronauts. Pilot Michael Collins flew Columbia in the lunar orbit while the other two astronauts were on the Moon's surface.

Service module: The part supported the command module with propulsion, electrical power, oxygen, and water.

Lunar module:
The module called Eagle had two stages- descent stage for moon landing and ascent stage to take astronauts back into lunar orbit.

Apollo 11 space mission: Historic Moon landing 50th Anniversary

Apollo 11 space mission created history by carrying Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin to the Moon’s surface on July 20, 1969. Apollo 11 space mission entered the lunar orbit three days after its launch. Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin used the Eagle Lunar module to land on the Moon. Michael Collins was the command module pilot and he stayed in the lunar orbit. Armstrong and Aldrin landed the lunar module in a crater known as the 'Sea of Tranquility' on 20 July 1969.

Neil Armstrong became the first person in history to step on the Moon on July 21 and the event was broadcasted on live TV. Armstrong described the event as “one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.” Buzz Aldrin joined him on the moon's surface 19 minutes later. The astronauts planted a flag of the United States on the lunar surface and then spoke to the then US President Richard Nixon through a telephone-radio transmission, which Nixon termed as "the most historic phone call ever made from the White House."

After collecting 21.5 kg of lunar material, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin used Eagle's ascent stage to return to the Columbia command module in the lunar orbit and all the three astronauts returned to the Earth on July 24 after spending more than eight historic days in space. Apollo 11's success fulfilled the national goal proposed by late US President John F Kennedy in 1961 of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth before the end of the decade. Elected in January 1961, John F Kennedy served as the 35th president of the United States until his assassination in November 1963.

Apollo program

The Apollo programme was dedicated to the national goal set by President John F. Kennedy. The programme received a major setback when a cabin fire in 1997 Apollo 1 mission killed the entire crew during a prelaunch test.

Apollo 8 was the first manned space mission to the Moon in 1968. However, the spacecraft could not land on the Moon. Apollo 8 became the first mission to orbit another celestial body.

Apollo 11 space mission comprising Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins was NASA's first successful moon landing mission. Following its success, five other Apollo missions also landed astronauts safely on the Moon and brought them back. The last moon landing was conducted in December 1972.

Apollo 13, the seventh manned flight to the Moon and the third landing mission was the only one that failed at its goal. Apollo 13, launched on April 11, 1970, had to abort its moon landing after an oxygen tank exploded two days after its launch crippling the service module that supported the command module. The crew, however, returned safely to Earth six days after the launch using the lunar module.

The Apollo programme is the only one till date to have sent manned space missions beyond low Earth orbit.

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