Current Affairs 28 March 2019 Digest 4: IEA’s Global Energy & CO2 status report; IPZ 2019 notification

Story 1: IEA released Global Energy and CO2 status report

International Energy Agency (IEA) recently released Global Energy and CO2 Status Report that highlights worldwide trends and developments of fuels, renewable sources, energy efficiency and carbon emissions.

Report highlights global energy consumption in 2018 increased at nearly twice the average rate of growth since 2010, driven by a robust global economy and higher heating and cooling needs in some parts of the world. Demand for all fuels increased, led by natural gas, even as solar and wind posted double digit growth. Energy efficiency saw lacklustre improvement. As a result of higher energy consumption, CO2 emissions rose 1.7% last year and hit a new record.


India specific findings

  • As per the International Energy Agency (IEA) report India’s energy demand outpaced global demand growth in 2018.
  • India, China and United States together accounted for nearly 70% of the rise in energy demand.
  • Despite this growth, per capita emissions in India remain low at only 40% of the global average.
  • India saw emissions rise by 4.8%, or 105 Mt, with the growth split evenly between power and other sectors such as transport and industry.
  • China, India, and the United States accounted for 85% of the net increase in emissions.
  • India’s energy intensity improvement declined 3% from 2018 even as its renewable energy installations increased 10.6% from 2018.
  • As per India’s commitments to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, India has promised to reduce the emissions intensity of its economy by 2030, compared to 2005 levels.
  • Indian oil demand grew 5 per cent in 2018 compared to 2017, a year when demand was lower due to the impact of the implementation of the Goods and Service Tax.




Global Findings

  • Energy consumption worldwide grew by 2.3% in 2018, nearly twice the average rate of growth since 2010, driven by a robust global economy as well as higher heating and cooling needs in some parts of the world.
  • As a result of higher energy consumption, global energy-related CO2 emissions increased to 33.1 Gt CO2, up 1.7%. Coal-fired power generation continues to be the single largest emitter, accounting for 30% of all energy-related carbon dioxide emissions.
  • Global gas demand expanded at its fastest rate since 2010, with year-on-year growth of 4.6%. Oil demand grew 1.3% and coal consumption rose 0.7%.
  • China saw the most substantial increase in energy demand, which grew 3.5% to 3,155 Mtoe, the highest since 2012.
  • After three years of decline, energy demand in the United States rebounded in 2018, growing by 3.7%, or 80 Mtoe, nearly one-quarter of global growth.
  • Energy demand in Europe in 2018 followed a different path. Despite an economic expansion of 1.8%, demand increased by only 0.2%.
  • An increase in energy efficiency in Germany resulted in a 2.2% drop in energy demand, with oil demand decreasing by more than 6%. Demand in France and the United Kingdom increased moderately.

About International Energy Agency (IEA)

The International Energy Agency is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis. The IEA works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 30 member countries and beyond. Its mission is guided by four main areas of focus: energy security, economic development, environmental awareness and engagement worldwide.


Story 2: Island protection zone (IPZ) 2019 notification for Andaman and Nicobar

The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change recently notified Island Protection Zone (IPZ) 2019 for Andaman and Nicobar. Changes in Island Protection Zone rules are aligned with the Niti Aayog's proposal for holistic development in the Islands.

It brings the norms for Andaman and Nicobar at par with Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) 2018 norms for other islands close to the mainland and backwater islands where a No Development Zone (NDZ)is only 20 meters from high tide line.



Major Highlights

  • Eco-tourism projects about 20 meters away from the high tide line (HTL) in small sized islands like Baratang, Havelock, and Car Nicobar are allowed.
  • If islands are large in size, eco-tourism 50 meters from the HTL is permitted.
  • It allows for eco-tourism activities like mangrove walks, tree huts and nature trails in island coastal regulation zone(ICRZ).
  • The notification also allows for construction of roads, roads on stilts by reclaiming land in exceptional cases for defence installations, public utilities or strategic purposes in eco-sensitive zones.
  • In case construction of such roads pass through mangroves, a minimum three times the mangrove area destroyed during the construction process shall be taken up for compensatory plantation of mangroves elsewhere.


Previously, IPZ 2011 stipulated an NDZ of 200 meters from the HTL for all islands. Only pipelines, transmission lines, trans-harbor links to be laid in the eco-sensitive zone were permitted. Now road construction is allowed.

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