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Climate, Soil & Vegetation

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Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks

Dec 14, 2017
Indian subcontinent is not only well known for its Cultural diversity, but also have a diverse range of flora and fauna. Human activities are permitted in a wildlife sanctuary whereas these are completely restricted in a national park. Hunting is prohibited without permission in a sanctuary; however, grazing and movement of cattle is permitted. Therefore, India houses a number of wildlife sanctuaries and national parks that help in preserving the wildlife in its natural form. Hunting and grazing are totally prohibited in a national park.

What are the differences between El Nino and La Nina?

Dec 4, 2017
The El Nino and La Nina are part of the global climate system which occurs when the Pacific Ocean and the atmosphere above it change from their neutral ('normal') state for several seasons. Here, we are giving the differences between El Nino and La Nina on the basis of meaning, Temperature at Sea Surface, Pressure, Trade winds, Seasons, Coriolis force, Ocean waters in the Pacific and cyclone for general awareness.

How does El Nino and La Nina impact on Indian Weather?

Nov 29, 2017
The Sea surface temperatures play a major role in global weather which influences two extreme phases of a naturally occurring climate cycle. I.e., El Nino/Southern Oscillation and La Nina. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific and the most powerful phenomenon of the Earth. Here, we are giving the write-up on the ‘How does El Nino and La Nina impact on Indian Weather?’ for general awareness.

Coastal Erosion in India

Nov 23, 2017
The Coastal Erosion is the process of wearing away of the land by the sea due to corrosion, abrasion, hydraulic action, attrition and corrosion/solution. India's has long peninsular region and due to developmental activities are often carried out without properly understanding the coastal dynamics, leading to long-term damage, particularly to local communities. Find out the concept of Coastal erosion, findings of Ministry of Earth Sciences, and reasons for coastal erosion and measure to deal with coastal erosion for the preparation competitive examination.

How the pre-monsoon rain became the boon of India's markets and Farmers!

May 23, 2017
India is a land of diverse range of climatic condition ranging from tropical in south, temperate and alpine in the Himalayan region, whereas some part of north-western part remains dry (Thar Desert) and some parts like Sunderban Delta, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat are characterised by mangrove vegetation. Hence, it very difficult to generalised the India’s diverse geographic level, and its wide range of weather. Let's find out, how pre-monsoon brings blessings and happiness to the India's markets and Farmers.

Summary on Climate of India

Jan 4, 2017
The climate of India may be broadly described as tropical monsoon type. The term “monsoon” is derived from Arabic word ‘mausim’ which means seasonal reversal in the wind direction. The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) designates four official seasons. Here, we are giving the ‘Summary on Climate of India’ which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

Report of Red Data Book

Nov 23, 2015
The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red Lists are the bearers of genetic diversity and the building blocks of ecosystems, and information on their conservation status and distribution provides the foundation for making decisions about conserving biodiversity from local to global levels. The IUCN Global Species Programme working with the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) has been assessing the conservation status of species, subspecies, varieties, and even selected subpopulations on a global scale for the past 50 years in order to highlight taxa threatened with extinction, and thereby promote their conservation.

Important facts about Wildlife

Nov 23, 2015
Under the agreement of Human Environment Conference 1972 (Stockholm) the Project Tiger was launched in India in 1973 with the help of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). According to the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and the Ministry of Environment and Forests, India, there were only 9 tigers reserved in India during 1973-74 whereas there have been established 41 of them untill January 2013.

Biosphere Reserves in India

Nov 23, 2015
Biosphere Reserves are representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over large area of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystems or a combination thereof and representative examples of bio-geographic zones/provinces.

Environmental movements and acts of the Government

Nov 23, 2015
India is a land of Gandian philosophy who advocates the economic growth but on the basis of the sustainable growth. The movements related to environment often to as the ecology movement which moving around conservation and green politics to addressing the environmental issues. The axis point of these types of movement are ecology, health and human rights for the grass-roots awareness. In recent years so may grass root environmental movements launched against the developmental activities that have threatened the ecological balance.

Social Forestry Programme

Nov 23, 2015
Social forestry refers to the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development. The term was first used in India in 1976 by The National Commission on Agriculture, Government of India. The basic objective social forestry is to raising plantations by the common man so as to meet the growing demand for timber, fuel wood, fodder, etc, thereby reducing the pressure on the traditional forest area.

The Forest Research Institute in India

Nov 23, 2015
The Forest Research Institute is an institute of the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education and is a premier institution in the field of forestry research in India. It is located at Dehradun in Uttarakhand, and is one of the oldest institutions of its kind. In 1991, it was declared a deemed university by the University Grants Commission. Established as Imperial Forest Research Institute in 1906, Forest Research Institute (FRI) Dehradun is a premier institution under the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE).

Forest Resources

Nov 23, 2015
Forests are among the most diverse and widespread ecosystems on earth, and have many functions: they provide timber and other forest products; have cultural values; deliver recreation benefits and ecosystem services, including regulation of soil, air and water; are reservoirs for biodiversity; and act as carbon sinks. The forest area differs from state to state in India. Madhya Pradesh stands at the top in the total forest area, followed by the Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Odisha. One-fourth of the total forest covered area of the country is in the north-eastern states.

Natural Vegetation

Nov 23, 2015
Natural vegetation means the plants that have not been grown by humans. It doesn’t need help from humans and gets whatever it needs from its natural environment. There is a close relationship between height of land and the character of vegetations. With the change in height, the climate changes and that changes natural vegetation. The growth of vegetation depends on temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors like slope and thickness of soil. It is categorized into three broad categories: Forest, grassland and shrubs.

Soil profile of India

Nov 23, 2015
Soil is the most important resource. Wheat, rice and millets, pulses, oilseeds, beverages, vegetables and fruits, all are obtained from soil. Other food items such as poultry, meat and milk are animal products. Besides, food timber, fibers, rubber, herbs and medicinal plants are also obtained from the soil.

Land resources: Availability and Degradation

Nov 23, 2015
Land is a finite resource is subject to competing pressures from urbanisation, infrastructure, increased food, feed, fibres and fuel production and the provision of key ecosystem services. But it's also a shrinking resource. This is a global problem. Demands for areas to settle grow food and biomass is rising around the world, and climate change is likely to impact on land demand, availability and degradation.

Distribution of Rainfall

Nov 23, 2015
The average rainfall in India is 125 cm. The South-west monsoon constituted 75% of the total rainfall (June to September), 13% of it by north-east monsoon (October to December), 10% of it by pre monsoon cyclonic rainfall (mainly in April and May and 2% of it by western disturbances (December to February). The western coast and North-Eastern India receive over about 400 cm of rainfall annually. However, it is less than 60 cm in western Rajasthan and adjoining parts of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab.

Koeppen's classification of Climate

Nov 23, 2015
The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used system for classifying the world's climates. Its categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. The Köppen system recognizes five major climatic types; each type is designated by a capital letter.

The El Nino Theory

Nov 20, 2015
El Nino is a name given to the periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru as a temporary replacement of the cold Peruvian current. Sea surface temperatures play a major role in global weather which influences two extreme phases of a naturally occurring climate cycle. I.e. El Niño/Southern Oscillation and La Nina. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific

The Jet Stream Theory

Nov 20, 2015
The Jet theory was propounded by Yest. The Jet stream is very fast blowing air current system in the upper atmosphere (9 to 18 km). Its speed is maximum (340 km/h) in the middle part. During winter season the upper air westerly jet streams are positioned in Asia. During summer season as sun falls vertically over the Tropic of Cancer the polar surface high pressure is weakened and upper air circum polar whirl shift northward.

The Equatorial Westerly Theory

Nov 20, 2015
The Equatorial Westerly Theory has been propounded by Flohn. He thinks of the thermal low of northern India and the accompanying monsoon as simply an unusually great northward displacement of the Northern Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (NITCZ). The seasonal shift of the ITCZ has given the concept of Northern Inter- Tropical Convergence Zone (NITCZ) in summer (July) and Southern Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (SITCZ) in winter (Jan.). The fact that the NITCZ is drawn to about 30° latitude may be associated with the unusually high temperature over north India

The Thermal Theory of Monsoon

Nov 20, 2015
The thermal theory was propounded by the British scholars. Dudley Stamp and Baker have played an important role in it. According to this theory, temperature is the main reason of the origin of monsoons. In summer, the sun rays fall perpendicularly in the Northern Hemisphere. The Southern trade winds which generally blow between 300 and 50 South latitudes, cross the Equator because of the Northern move of the thermal equatorial line.

The Onset of the Monsoon and Withdrawal

Nov 20, 2015
The onset of the Indian Monsoon and Withdrawal is defined in terms of zonal asymmetric temperature anomaly and withdrawal is defined in terms of vertical wind shear. The Monsoon, unlike the trade winds, are not steady winds but are pulsating in nature, affected by different atmospheric conditions encountered by it, on its way over the warm tropical seas. The monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian peninsula generally by the first week of June. Subsequently, it divides into two – the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch.

The Indian Monsoon

Nov 20, 2015
The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds. The sailors who came to India in historic times were one of the first to have noticed the phenomenon of the monsoon. They benefited from the reversal of the wind system as they came by sailing ships at the mercy of winds. The Arabs, who had also come to India as traders named this seasonal reversal of the wind system ‘Monsoon’. The monsoons are experienced in the tropical area roughly between 20° N and 20° S.

Factors affecting India’s Climate

Nov 20, 2015
The climate around the world is affected by many different factors that lead to different parts of the Earth experiencing differing climates. Latitude, attitude, pressure and winds are factors that influence the India’s climate. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country from the Rann of Kuchchh in the west to Mizoram in the east. India lies in the region of north easterly winds. These winds originate from the subtropical high-pressure belt of the northern hemisphere.

Seasons in India

Nov 20, 2015
India has a monsoon type of climate. The term “monsoon” is derived from Arabic word ‘mausim’ which means seasonal reversal in the wind direction. The season of India influenced by the two types of winds – one blow from the Arabic Sea and second is from the Bay of Bengal. The Indian meteorological department has divided the climate of India into four seasons- the Winter Season, the Summer Season, the Rainy Season and the Autumn Season.


Dec 10, 2010
The climate of India may be broadly described as tropical monsoon type. Its climate is affected by two seasonal winds — the north-east monsoon and the south-west monsoon. The north-east monsoon commonly known as winter monsoon blows from land to sea whereas south-west monsoon known as summer monsoon blows from sea to land after crossing the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The south-west monsoon brings most of the rainfall during the year in the country. It is now possible to make forecast about the monsoon rains successfully with developed models and trained manpower.


Dec 10, 2010
Biodiversity is the varied and differences among living organisms of terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes associated with them. India has great diversity in its geo-climatic conditions. Thus, there is great diversity in India's forest, wetlands, mangroves wildlife and marine areas. The richness in fauna and flora makes it as one of the 12 mega-biodiversity countries of the world.

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