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  • South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) & ASEAN

    South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA- 1993) was envisaged primarily as the first step towards the transition to a South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) leading subsequently towards a Customs Union, Common Market and Economic Union. In 1995, the Sixteenth session of the Council of Ministers (New Delhi, 18-19 December 1995) agreed on the need to strive for the realization of SAFTA. At the12th SAARC Summit (Jan. 4-6, 2004) at Islamabad, the Capital City of Pakistan, SAPTA became SAFTA. ASEAN (1967) is a union of South-East Asian Nations.

    Dec 1, 2015
  • International Finance Corporation & MIGA

    The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations that are the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), The International Finance Corporation (IFC), The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). IFC was established in July 1956 that provides loans to private industries for developing nations without any government guarantee and also promotes the additional capital investment in these countries. MIGA came into existence on April 1988.

    Dec 1, 2015
  • BRICS Nations

    BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India and China, South Africa) was initially formulated in 2001 by economist Jim O'Neill, of Goldman Sachs, in a report on growth prospects for the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China – which together represented a significant share of the world's production and population. In 2006, the four countries initiated a regular informal diplomatic coordination, with annual meetings of Foreign Ministers at the margins of the General Debate of the UN General Assembly (UNGA).

    Dec 1, 2015
  • The European Union (EU)

    The European Union (EU) is a unique economic and political partnership between 28 European countries that together cover much of the continent. It was created in the aftermath of the Second World War. The first steps were to foster economic cooperation: the idea being that countries that trade with one another become economically interdependent and so more likely to avoid conflict. It is based on the rule of law: everything that it does is founded on treaties, voluntarily and democratically agreed by all members.

    Dec 1, 2015
  • IBSA (India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum)

    IBSA was Established in June 2003,as a coordinating mechanism amongst three emerging countries(India, Brazil, South Africa), three multi ethnic and multicultural democracies, which are determined to: contribute to the construction of a new international architecture, bring their voice together on global issues, deepen their ties in various areas. Trade between IBSA partners has increased significantly since the Forum's inception and indications are that the target of US$ 25 billion by 2015 will be readily achieved.

    Dec 1, 2015
  • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

    The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) was created in 1944 to help Europe rebuild after World War II. Today, IBRD provides loans and other assistance primarily to middle income countries. IBRD is the original World Bank institution. It works closely with the rest of the World Bank Group (IBRD, IDA, IFC, MIGA) to help developing countries reduce poverty, promote economic growth, and build prosperity. IBRD is owned by the governments of its 188 member countries.

    Nov 30, 2015
  • World Trade Organisation (WTO)

    The World Trade Organisation (WTO) is an international organisation which sets the rules for global trade. This organisation was set up in 1995 as the successor to the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) created after the Second World War. It has 153 members. All decisions are taken unanimously but the major economic powers such as the US, EU and Japan has managed to use the WTO to frame rules of trade to advance their own interests.

    Nov 30, 2015
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)

    The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the inter-governmental organisation established to stabilize the exchange rate in the international trade. It helps the member countries to improve their Balance of Payment (BOP) condition thorough the adequate liquidity in the international market, promote the growth of global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade. It is one of the Bretton woods twins, which came into existence in 1945, is governed by and accountable to the 188 countries that make up its near-global membership.

    Nov 30, 2015
  • Foreign Direct Investment in Retail Sector in India

    The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) means “cross border investment made by a resident in one economy OR in an enterprise in another economy, with the aim of earning profits in the targeted country. Mostly the investment is into production by either buying a company in the targeted country or by expanding operations of an existing business in that country”. These investments can be made for many reasons, i.e. to take advantage of cheaper wage rate, special investment facilities offered by the country or the conducive atmosphere in the country.

    Nov 30, 2015
  • Export Promotion Policies in India

    The government of India has liberalized the schemes for the export oriented units and export processing zones, agriculture, horticulture, poultry, fisheries and dairying have been included in the export oriented units. Export promotion capital goods schemes (EPCGS) has been started to permit the exporters to import capital goods on concessional import duties. Under the EPCGS scheme, such importers of capital goods have to export goods of 4 times values of import within next five years. Establishment of the EXIM bank and SEZs promoted the export from country.

    Nov 30, 2015
  • Composition of Indian Foreign Trade

    In 1950 the Indian share in the world trade was 1.78% which came down to 0.6% in 1995. Currently it is 2.07% ($779 bn.) of the total world trade. The percentage of non traditional goods in total exports has increased the exports of chemical and engineering goods have shown a high growth rate. The manufactured goods constitute the bulk of export over 64% in recent years, followed by crude and petroleum products (including coal) with a 20% share and agriculture & allied with just 13% share.

    Nov 30, 2015
  • Human Migration

    The movement of people from region to region for the purpose of permanent or semi-permanent residence, usually across a political boundary is called Migration. For example: "semi-permanent residence" would be the seasonal movements of migrant farm labourers. People can either choose to move ("voluntary migration") or be forced to move ("involuntary migration"). Birth and death is another reason for the population size changes. It may be interpreted as a spontaneous effort to achieve a better balance between population and resources.

    Nov 30, 2015
  • Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMS)

    Under the Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures of the World Trade Organization (WTO), commonly known as the TRIMs Agreement, WTO members have agreed not to apply certain investment measures related to trade in goods that restrict or distort trade. The TRIMs Agreement prohibits certain measures that violate the national treatment and quantitative restrictions requirements of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

    Nov 28, 2015
  • Exchange Rate Management in India

    Foreign exchange market is the market in which foreign currencies are bought and sold. Being a member of IMF, India followed the par value system of pegged exchange rate system. But when the Breton Woods system collapsed in 1971, the rupee was pegged to pound sterling for four years after which it was initially linked to the basket of 14 currencies but later reduced to 5 currencies of India’s major trading partners. Currently India has adopted the managed exchange rate system.

    Nov 28, 2015
  • FERA & FEMA in India

    In the budget of 1997-98, the government had proposed to replace FERA-1973, by FEMA (Foreign Exchange management act). FEMA was proposed by the both house of the parliament in Dec. 1999. After the approval of president, FEMA 1999 has come into force w.e.f. June, 2000. Under the FEMA, provisions related to foreign exchange have been modified and liberalized so as to simplify foreign trade. Government hopes that the FEMA will make favourable development in the foreign money market.

    Nov 28, 2015