There were two major foreign invasions of Indian Sub-continent which happened in the form of Iranian invasion in 518 BC and Macedonian invasion in 326 BC. These two invasions promoted Indo Iranian Trade and commerce. Iranian writers introduced Kharoshthi script in India which was later on used in some Ashokan inscriptions. It was written from right to left like Arabic.
The Tamil country was ruled by three dynasties namely the Chera, Chola and Pandyas during the Sangam Age. The Chera Dynasty had ruled in two different time-periods. The first Chera Dynasty had ruled in Sangam Era while second Chera Dynasty had ruled from the 9th century AD onwards. The Chola kingdom of the Sangam period extended from modern Tiruchi district to Andhra Pradesh. Pandyan Kingdom was located in Tamil Nadu reigned around 6th century BC and ended around the 15th century AD.
The Chola Dynasty was a prominent Tamil Dynasty that ruled primarily in the south of India until the 13th century. Among the rulers, Karikala Chola was the most famous among the early Chola kings. The Chola Dynasty has some of the best specimens in bronze and other sculptures i.e. Dancing Nataraj statue & Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjaur (Tamil Nadu) are good example of the same.
The Satavahana Empire existed around 230 BC onwards in India and extended from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh to Prathistan and Junnar in Maharashtra. The empire lasted 450 years approximately which is 220 AD. In fact, the Satavahana started off as the vassals of Mauryan Empire and after their decline emerged as the independent empire in south India.
In the 4th century B.C., Nanda kings ruled Magadha dynasty and this dynasty was the most powerful kingdom of the north. A Brahman minister called Chanakya also known as Kautilya/ Vishnupgupta, trained a young man, Chandragupta from the Mauryan family. Chandragupta organized his own army and overthrew the Nanda king in 322 B.C.
The objectives of the Buddhist teaching were to secure the salvation of individual or nirvana. Buddhism made an important impact on the society by keeping its doors open to women and Shudras. Buddhism taught people not to take things for granted but to argue and judge them on merits. Buddhism promoted rationalism among peoples. The Buddhists created a new language Hybrid Sanskrit by mixing Pali with Sanskrit.
Six Buddhist Councils marked important turning points in the story of early Buddhism. This story spans the time from immediately after the death and Parinirvana of the historical Buddha in the 5th century BCE to sometime early in the first millennium CE. This is also the story of sectarian clashes and the eventual Great Schism that resulted in the two major schools, Theravada and Mahayana.
During his lifetime the Buddha taught not in Vedic Sanskrit, which had become unintelligible to the people, but in his own Indian dialect; he also encouraged his monks to propagate his teachings in the vernacular. After his death, the Buddhist canon was formulated and transmitted by oral tradition, and it was written down in several versions in the 2d and 1st cent. B.C. Its main divisions, called Pitakas.
Forty-nine days after Buddha attained enlightenment he was requested to teach. As a result of this request, Buddha rose from meditation and taught the first Wheel of Dharma. These teachings which include the Sutra of the Four Noble Truths and other discourses are the principal source of the Hinayana and Mahayana.
Sidhartha was born (c. 563 BC; Kapilavastu, Nepal) into the Gautama family of the Shakaya clan. The Shakayas were members of the priestly-warrior caste. In fact, Sidhartha's father(shuddhodhana) was the head of the tribe. Her mother’s name was Mahamaya. He got married to Yashodhara and got a son named Rahul. He left his luxurious life at the age of 29. At the age of thirty-five, under a papal tree, Sidhartha reached enlightenment and became an "enlightened one"--a Buddha (c. 528 BC).
A Jain is defined as a follower of Jina. Jina means victor or Conqueror. Jainism started centuries before Buddhism but later on was revived by Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankar of Jainism. According to Jain theology, Janism is one of the oldest religion which has neither beginning nor end.
From Ancient to Modern Indian History, Indian subcontinent encounter by foreign travellers and some of them left valuable accounts of their travels. These foreign accounts gave us a valuable objective document that will help us to understand the social-political-economic condition of a particular era. These travellers account cannot be understood without knowing their perception of writing. Here, we are giving the list of famous travellers who visited India during reign of different rulers of Vijayanagar Empire.
Some several thousand years ago there once thrived a civilization in the Indus Valley. Located in what's now Pakistan and western India, it was the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. (1) The Indus Valley Civilization, as it is called, covered an area the size of Western Europe. It was the largest of the four ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. However, of all these civilizations the least is known about the Indus Valley people.
An atom is a particle of matter that uniquely defines a chemical element. An atom consists of a central nucleus that is usually surrounded by one or more electrons. Each electron is negatively charged.
Radioactivity was gradually understood in terms of the disintegration of atomic nuclei. The three types of radiation are alpha decay, beta decay and gamma decay. Alpha radiation occurs when an unstable nucleus breaks down so as to eject a fast-moving nucleus of helium, which consists of two protons and two neutrons.