During the end of 5th century A.D. the Gupta Empire began to disintegrate. Along with this breakdown Imperial Guptas, Magadha and its capital Patliputra also lost their importance. Therefore, Post Gupta Period was very turbulent in nature. Five major powers immersed in north India after the fall of the Guptas. These powers were: The Hunas, The Maukharis, The Maitrakas, The Pushyabhutis, The Gaudas.
During the 8th century AD, a struggle for control over the Kannauj took place among three major empires of India namely the Palas, the Pratiharas and the Rastrakutas. The Palas ruled the eastern parts of India while the Pratiharas controlled the western India (Avanti-Jalaor region). The Rastrakutas ruled over the Deccan region of India. The struggle for control over Kannuj among these three dynasties is known as the tripartite struggle in Indian history.
Later Cholas were assigned the period from 1070 AD to 1279 AD. At this time, the Chola Empire achieved its pinnacle & became the "Most Powerful Country" of the world. Cholas occupied South East Asian Countries and had the most powerful army and navy of the world at that time.
After the fall of the Guptas, in their home provinces we find a long line of rulers. All of them except one had their names ending in Gupta. Hence the family is known in history as the ‘Later Guptas of Magadha.’ It is not possible to determine whether they were connected in any way with the Imperial Guptas. In the post Gupta period there arose some important dynasties in Northern India , viz. The Maukharis of Kanauj, the Varmanas of Kamarupa, the Pushyabhutis of Thaneswar etc.
In Gupta Empire, the king was directed in his administration by a community and group consisting of a chief minister and a Senapati. There were various names of empire "Rajya", Rashtra", "Desha", "Mandala", "Prithvi" and "Avani".
Industry and trade were generally prosperous during Gupta period. There was a balance of foreign trade. The three important southern ports of Muziris, Arikamedu, and Kaveripattanam also lost their importance. There were two types of merchants in the Gupta period namely Sresthi and Sarthavaha. Luxury goods were the principal articles of long distance trade. The internal trade used to be carried on by roads and rivers. Foreign trade was used to be carried on by sea and land.
The Cholas revived their power in 848 AD and their rule was re-established after a long lull from the 3rd century AD to 9th Century AD. The first medieval Chola ruler was Vijayalaya Chola who is credited with re-establishing the Chola rule. He had his capital in Thanjaur. He was a feudatory of Pallavas. He built Solesvara temple at Padukottai. The Cholas revived their power in 848 AD and their rule was re-established after a long lull from the 3rd century AD to 9th Century AD.
Qutb-ud-din Aibak was a sipahasalar under Muhammad Ghori as well as his slave. He was born to a Turkish family in Central Asia and was sold as a slave in his childhood. Iltutmish succeeded Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206-11) which is further followed by Razia (1236-40) and Balban (1265-85). Qutb-ud-din Aibak laid the foundation of Qutub Minar but completed by Iltutmish.
Balban was a slave of Iltutmish and belonged to the Illabari tribe of the Turks. Initially he got the menial jobs but later on he progressed in his career by becoming first the chief huntsman of Raziya. He served under his sultan Nasir-ud-din Mahmud as his right hand for 20 years and crushed all the rebellions whether outside the court or inside the court. Following his master’s death, Balban ascended the throne in February 1265 AD.
The Tamil country was ruled by three dynasties namely the Chera, Chola and Pandyas during the Sangam Age. The Chera Dynasty had ruled in two different time-periods. The first Chera Dynasty had ruled in Sangam Era while second Chera Dynasty had ruled from the 9th century AD onwards. The Chola kingdom of the Sangam period extended from modern Tiruchi district to Andhra Pradesh. Pandyan Kingdom was located in Tamil Nadu reigned around 6th century BC and ended around the 15th century AD.
The Chola Dynasty was a prominent Tamil Dynasty that ruled primarily in the south of India until the 13th century. Among the rulers, Karikala Chola was the most famous among the early Chola kings. The Chola Dynasty has some of the best specimens in bronze and other sculptures i.e. Dancing Nataraj statue & Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjaur (Tamil Nadu) are good example of the same.