• Heat and Work

    Modern physics sees heat as energy collectively possessed by the particles making up a gas, liquid or solid. A body which possesses energy has the ability to do work.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • Electromagnetism

    Electromagnetism is the study of the effects caused by stationary and moving electric charges.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • Electric Current

    In the late 1790s, Count Alessandro Volta made the first battery. The first practical primary cell (non-rechargeable) was produced by John Frederic Daniell (1790-1845) in 1836, using zinc and copper electrodes. This was followed by the first secondary (rechargeable) cell invented by Gaston Plante (1834-89) in 1859.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • Atomic Theories

    John Dalton revolutionized science in 1803 when he hypothesized that atoms of different chemical elements, such as hydrogen and oxygen, had different characteristic masses. J.J. Thomson discovered the first subatomic particle -the electron - in 1897.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • The Elements

    It was Lavoisier who produced the first fairly reliable list of elements. However, it contained substances which had not, up to that time, yielded up their true elements, such as magnesia.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • States of Matter

    Matter can exist in three states - solid, liquid or gas (vapour). Virtually all substances are able to exist in more than one of these three states.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • Organic Chemistry

    Organic Chemistry

    Dec 10, 2010
  • Modern chemistry

    Modern chemistry is the study of the building blocks of matter and the fundamental units of chemistry are elements. There are  about 90 naturally occurring elements.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • Chemical Reactions

    Chemical reactions occur all the time - when fuels are burnt, in the industrial extraction of metals from their ores, and in many natural life processes.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • Chemical Groups

    The broad classifications of the elements is metals and non-metals.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • Chemical Bonds

    Although there are only 112 known elements, there are millions of chemical substances found in nature or made artificially.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • Atomic Structure

    Atoms are the smallest particle of an element that can exist, and can be regarded as the building blocks of everything. Atoms can  combine to form molecules.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • Biology: The Science of Life

    The aim of biology is to explain the living world in terms of scientific principles. Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher and teacher, is known as the father of biology and the French naturalist, Jean Baptiste-de Lamarck, was the first to used the word  ‘biology’ in 1800.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • The Heart

    Its average weight is about 340 grams in men and 255 grams in women. The left half and the right half of the heart is divided by a wall called septum. Each half, in turn, is divided into an upper chamber called the auricle and a lower chamber called the ventricle.

    Dec 10, 2010
  • The Cell: Foundation Of All Living Things

    Cells are the basic units of life. They are the smallest parts of a living organism that can lead an independent existence. Singly, or in association with other cells, they make up the bodies of all living things.

    Dec 10, 2010

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