Amendments to the Constitution of India: List of first 10 amendments
Indian Constitution provides for its own amendments so that it can be changed according to the conditions and requirements of the changing society in particular. Even the writers of the Indian Constitution debated this issue, that when the world would grow, the mindset of people would change. This is why the process of amendment was mentioned in the Constitution.
Though the process is not that easy, nevertheless, it is helpful in the adjustment of Indian laws as per the people of India and their situations. In this article below, know about the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
First 10 Amendments to the Indian Constitution:
1st Constitutional Amendment:
The major aim of the first amendment of the Constitution of India was to empower the state to make provisions for the advancement of social and economically backward people of the country.
To remove various practical difficulties created in various cases like Kameshwar Singh Case, Romesh Thapar Case, etc and also issues arising due to Zamindari land, State monopoly of trade etc, this amendment was done.
The amendment was made in the year 1951 itself and it added Ninth Schedule to protect the land reforms and other laws included in it from the judicial review.
The amendment also added three more grounds of restrictions on freedom of speech and expression including Public order, Friendly relations with foreign states and incitement to any offence.
2nd Amendment of Constitution: This amendment removed the upper population limit for a parliamentary constituency. Article 81(1)(b) of the Indian Constitution was amended due to this.
4th Constitutional Amendment:
The scale of compensation that is given in lieu of compulsory acquisition of private property was made beyond the scrutiny of courts in this amendment. It also authorised the state to nationalise any trade and included some more Acts in the Ninth Schedule.
As per the amendment mentioned in the Constitution- "No property shall be compulsorily acquired or requisitioned save for a public purpose and save by authority of a law which provides for compensation for the property so acquired or requisitioned and either fixes the amount of the compensation or specifies the principles on which, and the manner in which, the compensation is to be determined and given, and no such law shall be called in question in any court on the ground that the compensation provided by that law is not adequate."
5th Constitutional Amendment:
This amendment provided that no Bill for the purpose would be introduced in either House of the Parliament except on the recommendation of the President and unless the proposal contained in the Bill is affecting any area, boundaries or name of any of the States that are specified in Part A or B of the First Schedule, or, the Bill has been referred by the President to state legislature or within such further period as the President may allow and the period so specified has expired.
7th Constitutional Amendment:
The amendment was made in the Indian Constitution for the implementation of the State Reorganization Act, 1956.
This was recommended by the State Reorganization Committee
Through this Act, the second and seventh schedules were amended. It also abolished the existing classification of the states into four categories that are Part A, B, C and D states. These were reorganised into 14 states and 6 Union Territories.
Also, the jurisdiction of the High Courts was extended to the UTs and an additional Judge's appointment was provided for in the high courts.
9th Constitutional Amendment:
It was done in the year 1960 after Nehru Noon Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan. This agreement divided the territory of the Berubari Union and the Government of Bengal stood in its opposition.
The issue was reported to SC which said that the power of the Parliament to diminish the area of the state included in Article 3 is not inclusive of cessation of the Indian territory to a foreign country. Indian territory could only be ceded to a foreign country by amendment of the Constitution under Article 368.
The Indian territory of Berubari to Pakistan was provided in the Indo Pak Agreement of 1958 due to the 9th Amendment.
10th Constitutional Amendment:
The 10th Amendment Act of 1961 provided for the inclusion of Dadar and Nagar Haveli as the 7th Union Territory of India. The Tenth Amendment of the Constitution provided for this by amending the First Schedule. It also amended Clause (1) of Article 240 of the Constitution to also include the UT of Dadra and Nagar Haveli that President can make regulations for harmony and development of better government in the territory. KG Badlani was chosen as the Prime Minister of free Dadra and Nagar Haveli for 1 day so that an agreement can be inked between him and Jawaharlal Nehru for its official integration.