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What is the difference between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha?

Tulika Tandon

Indian Parliament: Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha

India's political system is federal in nature that means there are two tiers of the Government. The two parts are the Union Government and the State Government. The history of bicameralism goes back to 1919 through the Government of India Act 1919. 

In the article below know the difference between the two houses of the Parliament. 

Indian Parliament:

The Parliament of India is composed of the:

  1. President
  2. Lower House (Lok Sabha)
  3. Upper House (Rajya Sabha)

Lok Sabha is also known as House of People and the Rajya Sabha is known as the Council of States. 

The houses of Parliament are dealt with in the Constitution between articles 79-122. 

Take a look at the composition of both the houses of Parliament:

Houses of Parliament:

Take a look at the explanations below. The Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha both constitute the Indian Parliament. 

Lok Sabha- Lower House

Strength - 552

Breakdown of seats-

  1. 530 members represent the States
  2. 20 are the representatives of Union Territories
  3. 2 members are also nominated by the President from Anglo-Indian Community
  4. At present there are just 545 members as only 13 members represent the Union Territories.
  5. Recently the nomination of two anglo Indians in Lok Sabha has been abolished through enactment of 104th Constitutional Amendmant Act 2019. 

Rajya Sabha- Upper House

Strength- 250

Breakdown of seats-

  1. 238 members indirectly elected representing the States and Union Territories
  2. 12 members are nominated by the President
  3. At present the strength is 245 as 233 members are inkly representing states and UTs while 12 are members of nomination. 

Difference between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha

Take a look at the table below to understand the difference between the two houses more effectively:

Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha
Called as House of People Called as Council of States
It can be dissolved It cannout be dissolved so is a permanent body
Eligible voters can elect their representative by way of direct elections Composed of indirectly elected representatives by the elected representativesof the Assemblies of States and Union Territories
Lok Sabha is headed by the Speaker Vice President is the Chairman of Rajya Sabha
The strength of the lower house is 552 The strength of the upper house is 250
Lok Sabha has the power of money bill and can reject it Rajya Sabha has the power to protect the states’ rights against the Union but cannot reject a money bill
The minimum age to become a member is 25 years The minimum age to qualify as a member is 30 years.
Lok Sabha can express no confidence in the Government Rajya Sabha has no power to express no confidence
Lok Sabha can vote on demand of grants in the Annual Budget Rajya Sabha has no power of voting in case of Budget but can only discuss.
President can nominate 2 members from Anglo-Indian Community if they are not adequately represented President nominates 12 members possessing special knowledge and practical experience in Arts, Literature, Science, Social Service
Universal Adult Franchise is the method of election used Proportional Representation by means of Single Transferable Vote is the election method used


Among all the Union Territories only Delhi, Jammu Kashmir and Puducherry are represented in the Rajya Sabha. Rajya Sabha is the house of Parliament from which 1/3 of its members retire every 2 years.

Another fact that is to be kept in mind is that the Council of Ministers is responsible only to Lok Sabha and not Rajya Sabha.  

Also Read| What is the difference between Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) & Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad)?


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