Mole Day 2020: Theme, History and Significance

Mole Day 2020: It is celebrated every year on 23 October from 6:02 a.m. to 6:02 p.m. commemorates chemistry’s measuring unit called “Avogadro’s Number” (6.02 x 1023). 

Mole Day was created to generate interest in the subject of Chemistry. Several schools throughout the United States around the world celebrate Mole Day. They perform various activities related to chemistry or moles.

What is a mole?

For a given molecule, one mole is a mass (in grams) whose number is equal to the molar mass of the molecule. For better understanding let us take an example of a water molecule. It has a molar mass of 18 that is one mole of water weighs 18 grams. Similarly, one mole of neon has a molar mass of 20 grams. That is one mole of any substance contains Avagadro's Number of molecules or atoms of that substance. Madeo Avogadro, for the first time, discovered this relationship and after his death, he received the credit for this. 

Mole Day 2020: Theme

The theme of Mole Day 2020 is MOLEzilla!

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Mole Day: History

An article appeared in the early 1980s in The Science Teacher about a high school chemistry teacher and her rational for the idea of celebrating the day. From this article, the seed was planted for establishing a national organisation.

The National Mole Day Foundation (NMDF) was established on 15 May, 1991. The objective of the National Mole Day Foundation was and continues to get all persons, mainly students, interested or enthused about chemistry. The Foundation in 1992 became a not-for-profit corporation in the State of Wisconsin. 

The newly established "National Mole of the Year" Award was first presented at the ChemEd '93 conference at Buttler University. This award continued with presentations at ChemEd '95 at Old Dominion University and ChemEd '97 at the University of Minnesota. Really it is the "Mole-of-the-Every-Other Year" as the award is presented in odd-numbered years at the ChemEd Conferences. 

As the years have passed, interest within the National Mole Day Foundation has become widespread. The day is celebrated in various foreign countries, especially in Canada and in Australia. In Australia, the CSIRO (which is analogous to NSTA) encourages every teacher of science subject to celebrate National Mole Day. Therefore, we can say that NMDF was created with the intention to generate interest in chemistry.

Origin of Avogadro's number 

In 1811, Avogadro proposed his hypothesis. At that time there was no standard or no data on the number of particles in a mole. In 1827, the first measurements which could give an approximately value for Avagadro's number were the observations of Brownian motion by Robert Brown. 

Avogadro's hypothesis was used by Canninzarro (1860) to develop a defensible set of atomic weights based on the 1/16 of the atomic weight of the oxygen. Actually, this was the basis for progressively more accurate estimates for the Avogadro's number over the next 100 years. In the late 1800s, reasonable values were available from the sedimentation equilibria of colloidal particles. In the early 1900s Millikan's oil drop experiment gave improved accuracy and was cited in most chemistry textbooks 50 years ago. In 1958. Textbooks gave Avogadro's number as 6.02 times 10 to the 23rd. The current value is 6.022137 times 10 to the 23rd

About Amedeo Avogadro
He was born on 9 August, 1776 in Turin, Italy. He was an Italian scientist and one of the noted founders of physical chemistry. Actually, he was a professor of physics but he experimented in both physics and chemistry. He use mathematics to base most of his findings. 

As we know that Avogadro is well known for his hypothesis namely Avogadro's Number. According to his law at a fixed temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain the same number of molecules. 

Avogadro's work was recognized nearly fifty years after he had made his hypothesis. Two years after his death, a colleague, Stanislao Cannizzaro (1826-1910) showed how the utilisation of Avogadro's number could solve many of the problems in chemistry.

Finally, his work was recognised. The number 6.02214199 x 1023 is known as Avogadro's number NA, in honour of Amedeo Avogadro.


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