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Science and Tech Weekly Brief: Important Updates from April 11 to 16, 2021

Go through the science and technology weekly brief listed below, The article is helpful for all the candidates preparing for various competitive exams like UPSC, SSC, NDA etc. 

What is a cell?

Cells are the fundamentals unit of life made of organic molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, nucleotides etc.The cells are of ywo kinds: Plant cells and Animal cells

Animal cells are made of four major parts 

  1. Cell membrane 
  2. Cytoplasm 
  3. Nucleus
  4. Mitochondria

Know the difference between Plant and Animal cells here

Animal Cell

Plant cell

No cell wall

Have a cellulose cell wall outside the cell membrane

Irregular or round in shape

Square or rectangular in shape

Centrosomes and centrioles are present

Centrosomes and centrioles are absent

Plastids are absent

Plastids are present

Vacuoles are usually small or not present

Vacuoles are few in number (large or single) and centrally positioned

Cilia is present in most animal cells

Cilia is absent

Mitochondria are numerous

Mitochondria are few

The mode of nutrition is hetrotrophic

The mode of nutrition is majorly autotrophic

Single highly complex and prominent Golgi apparatus is seen

Simpler units of Golgi apparatus called dictyosomes are present

How is nuclear waste water purified?

  1. The water is filtered again and again to remove the radioactive isotopes of extended half life. It is generally stopped at tritium which is a radioactive isotope of Hydrogen and is hard to separate from water.
  2. Then the water is diluted until the tritium levels fall below the regulatory limit.
  3. It is then released into a bigger water body. 

How does the nuclear reactor work?

  1. The reactor includes some enclosed rods of uranium pellets. 
  2. Uranium is naturally radioactive and undergoes fission. 
  3. The atoms of Uranium split at a specific rate releasing neutrons and heat. 
  4. In the reactor fuel, the natural ability of Uranium is harnessed and it is split apart in a chain reaction. 
  5. The heat that results from the process boils water which in turn drives the steam turbines to generate electricity. 
  6. The fuel rods are surrounded by control rods to absorb extra neutrons and the fuel is immersed in water to keep it cool. 

What is Net Zero 

  1. Net-zero is a state where a country's emissions are compensated by the absorption and removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. 
  2. Carbon-negative is the state where the absorption and removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere exceeds the actual emissions. 

For example: Bhutan is called a carbon-negative nation as it absorbs more than it emits. 

What is Lab on Wheels:

It is a programme launched by Delhi Technological University, DTU, to impart the knowledge to those under-privileged in the city in areas of science and mathematics.

The programme will mutually benefit both the underprivileged students as well as DTU, in cases where any of these students decide to take admission in DTU to pursue higher education. 

The bus will be equipped with 16 computers, 2 televisions, one 3D printer, one laptop, one printer and cameras. It would be fully air-conditioned and will have facilities such as Wi-Fi, and 100% power backup.  

The said programme will initially target 12 schools and will be held in three shifts of three hours each. Each school would be visited once a week for eight weeks.

Every shift will have two volunteers for 16 students if it is a computer lab and 25 students if it is a regular classroom teaching.12 new schools will be selected after 8 weeks.

Read| Science and Tech Weekly Brief: Updates from previous week

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