World Cancer Day 2021: What are Blood Cancers, Types, Symptoms, Treatment and data in India?
World Cancer Day 2021: It is observed on 4 February every year and this year the theme is "I Am and I Will". The campaign shows that our actions have an impact on everyone around us, within our neighbourhoods, communities, and cities. This year is a reminder of the enduring power of cooperation and collective action i.e. together, all our actions matter.
What are Blood Cancers?
It is a type of cancer that affects blood cells and affects the production and function of blood cells.
This type of cancer starts in the bone marrow which is the main source of blood production.
It occurs when abnormal blood cells start growing out of control and interrupt the function of normal blood cells that fight off infection and produce new blood cells.
Blood Cancer: Types
Mainly, there are three types of blood cancers namely leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma.
It is a blood cancer that originates in the blood and bone marrow. It is caused by the rapid production of abnormal white blood cells and interferes with the bone marrow's ability to make red blood cells and platelets. These high numbers of abnormal white blood cells are not able to fight infection.
This type of blood cancer affects the lymphatic system, which removes excess fluids from the body and produces immune cells. As we know that lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that fights infection. Therefore, abnormal lymphocytes become lymphoma cells that multiply and collect in the lymph nodes and other tissues. And over time, these cancerous cells impair the immune system of the body.
It is a type of blood cancer that begins in the plasma cells of blood which is a type of white blood cell made in the bone marrow. Plasma cells are white blood cells that produce antibodies to fight against infection and disease in the body. So, myeloma cells prevent the normal production of antibodies which make the immune system weak and susceptible to infection.
Blood Cancer: Symptoms
Loss of appetite, nausea
Persistent fatigue, weakness
Unexplained weight loss
Shortness of breath
Itchy skin or skin rash
Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarms or groin
Delirium and confusion
Decreased urination and difficulty while urinating
Blood Cancer: Treatment
On the type of cancer, treatment depends and how fast the cancer is progressing, where cancer has spread, and other factors. Some common treatment for blood cancer are:
Chemotherapy: In this anticancer cancer drugs are provided to the patient to interfere with and stop the growth of cancer cells in the body. In blood cancer, in chemotherapy treatment, sometimes several drugs are given together in a set regimen. This treatment may also be given before a stem cell transplant.
Radiation therapy: In this type of cancer treatment high-energy rays are given to kill cancer cells. It may also be given before a stem cell transplant.
Stem cell transplantation: In this type of treatment, healthy stem cells are infused into the patient body to help resume healthy blood production following therapy to destroy malignant blood cells. Stem cells may be collected from the bone marrow, circulating blood, and umbilical cord blood.
Blood Cancer in India
In India, over 20,000 new cases of childhood blood cancer are diagnosed every year of which nearly 15,000 of those cases are leukemia as per Globocan 2020.
The most common type of blood cancer is leukemia that affects children and teens (0-19 years) and one of the leading causes of death.
As per some studies, India ranks 3rd highest in reported cases of Blood Cancer after the US and China. Several factors are responsible like low accessibility of affordable healthcare in rural areas, lack of awareness and education on Blood Cancer, etc.
So, now you may have come to know about the blood cancer, types, symptoms, treatment, etc.