What is the difference between Gandhara School and Mathura School of Art?

The origin of Indian art can be traced to pre-historic settlements in the 3rd millennium BC. The Indian art form envisages the rich and complex history of India that is spanning thousands of years. Traditional Indian art usually had a religious character and Buddhism, Hinduism and later Islam.

The Gandhara School of Art reached its peak under the reign of Kanishka the Great from 127 to 151 AD. This school inherited the Greco-Buddhist art. This school for the first time depicted Buddha as a human form. Artisans from Mathura School of Art initially continued the Mauryan sculptural forms of the Yaksha and Yakshi, until a human image of Buddha appeared, which was independent of other schools of art, but later influenced by the Gandhara School.

Difference between Gandhara School and Mathura School of Art

Gandhara School of Art

Mathura School of Art

It is a style of Buddhist visual art.

It deals with subjects from Hinduism (both Vaishnav and Shavite images) and Jainism as well.

It has Hellenistic features of Buddha image.

The Buddha image at Mathura is modelled on the lines of earlier Yaksha images.

The expression of calmness is the centre point of attraction of Gandhar Buddha.

Mathura Buddha is delighted in mood, seated in Padmasana and right hand in Abhyamudra and left hand on left thigh showing masculinity.

In Gandhara images, eyes are longer; ear lobes shorter and noses sharper and better defined.

Mathura tradition, Buddha images have longer ear lobes, thicker lips, wider eyes and prominent nose.

This school use grey sandstone, stucco (lime plaster).

This school used red stone for making the sculptures.

It was a fusion of Greco-Roman/Hellenisitc and Indian styles.

It was inspired by the early Indian Buddhist arts of Bharhut and Sanchi of MP.

It flourished from about the middle of the first century BC to about the fifth century AD in the Gandhara region (north-western India).

The origin has been traced back to the middle of the school century BC, but it was only in the first century AD that its genuine progress began.

Geographically, Indian arts spans the entire Indian subcontinent, including what is now India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and eastern Afghanistan. A strong sense of design is characteristic of Indian art which can be also observed in today's world with traditional forms.

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