The Government of India during the Twelfth Five Year Plan launched National Mission on Sustainable during the Twelfth Five Year Plan to transform Indian agriculture into a climate resilient production system through suitable adaptation and mitigation measures under the National Action Plan on Climate Change.
1. To promote location specific Integrated/Composite Farming Systems that makes agriculture more productive, sustainable, and remunerative and climate resilient.
2. To adopt appropriate soil and moisture conservation measures that will enhance the conservation of natural resources.
3. To adopt comprehensive soil health management practices based on soil fertility maps, soil test based application of macro & micro nutrients, judicious use of fertilizers etc.
4. There should be optimisation of utilization of water resources through efficient water management to expand coverage for achieving ‘more crops per drop’.
5. To develop capacity of farmers & stakeholders, in conjunction with other on-going Missions e.g. National Mission on Agriculture Extension & Technology, National Food Security Mission, National Initiative for Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) etc., in the domain of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.
6. There should be selection of block by the pilot model for improving productivity of rain-fed farming by mainstreaming rain-fed technologies refined through NICRA and by leveraging resources from other schemes/Missions like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP), and RKVY etc.
7. There should be establishment of an effective inter and intra Departmental/Ministerial co-ordination for accomplishing the goal of National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture under the aegis of NAPCC.
The functional areas of the mission are Research and Development, technologies, products and practices, infrastructure and capacity building. On the basis of functional areas this mission moving around 10 dimensions namely seed & culture water, pest, nutrient, farming practices, credit, insurance, market, information and livelihood diversification for promoting suitable agricultural practices. Dryland Agriculture; Risk Management; Access to Information; and Use of Bio- technologies are the focused areas of the mission.
Drawbacks of National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
India's National Mission of Sustainable Agriculture structurally is very good and it can identify the challenges faced by the agriculture in India. But the provision and strategies of the mission are drawn from the past policies. There are few drawbacks of the mission which is given below:
1. Proposed provision and strategies are highly extensive which is only targeting the big farmers and rest are remaining vulnerable.
2. Sustainable Agriculture is based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. But the proposed strategies of the mission given importance of water and largely ignored the usage of chemical fertilizers. The use of chemical fertilizer required more irrigation as compare to the organic farming.
3. The mission is lacked by the adequate framework to meet the climate change especially challenges faced by agriculture due to the climate change.