Bihar is an entirely land–locked state of the eastern part of the India. It lies mid-way between the humid West Bengal in the east and the sub humid Uttar Pradesh in the west which provides it with a transitional position in respect of climate, economy and culture. It is bounded by Nepal in the north and by Jharkhand in the south. The plain of the state is divided into two unequal halves by the river Ganga which flows through the middle from west to east.
1. The first Chief Minister of Bihar: Sri Krishna Singh
2. First governor of Bihar during British India: Sir James David Sifton
3. First governor of Bihar: Shri Jairamdas Daulatram
4. The first Magadhi film: Bhaiyaa, (1961)
5. The first Maithili movie: Kanyadan (1965)
6. The first Bhojpuri talkie film: Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo (1963)
7. The first Chief Justice of Patna High Court before Independence: Sir Justice Edward Maynard Des Champs Chamier
8. The first woman Chief Justice of Patna High Court after Independence: Justice Rekha Doshit
9. The first Indian Chief Justice of Patna High Court after independence: Pandit Lakshami Kant Jha
10. The first lady judge of Patna High Court holds the distinction of being the first woman to hold court at Patna High Court and its Ranchi Bench: Justice Indu Prabha Singh
11. The first woman judge of the Supreme Court of India from Bihar: Justice Gyan Sudha Misra.
12. First International Cricket Stadium in Bihar: Moin-ul-Haq Stadium (Previously Known as Rajendra Nagar Stadium)
13. First Democratic election of Bihar held in March, 1937.Congress emerged as largest political party, Muslim Independent Party headed by Barrister Muhammad Yunus stood second. Barrister Mohammad Yunus formed Government and became first Premier (April- July, 1937) of Bihar province.
14. First Tiger Reserve: Valmiki National Park, tiger reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary is located at the India-Nepal border in the West Champaran district of Bihar, India on the bank of river Gandak.
15. First Woman Combat Officer of ITBP from Bihar: Prakriti
16. First female chief minister of Bihar: Smt. Rabri Devi
17. First women fighter stream pilots in India’s history: Bhawana Kanth (Darbhanga, Bihar), Avani Chaturvedi (Satna, Madhya Pradesh.) and Mohana Singh (Khatehpura in Jhunjhunu district, Rajasthan).
18. First Muslim Lady IPS Officer of India from Bihar: Ghuncha Sanobar
19. First woman from the state to get a Bihar cadre in the IPS: Meenu Kumari after Kumud Choudhary (1979 batch) and Manjari Jaruhar (1976 batch).
20. First Speaker of Bihar Legislative Assembly in independent India: Bindeshwari Prasad Verma
21. First ancient University of Bihar: Nalanda University
22. First University of Bihar during British Raj: Patna University
23. First European to enter in Bihar: Portuguese
24. First Republic of the World: Vaishali (Bihar)
The ruling dynasties of Bihar are Magadha Empire (Nanda Dynasty, Mauraya Dynasty, Shunga dynasty, Kanva dynasty, Gupta Dynasty), Pala dynasty, Sena dynasty, Pushyabhuti dynasty (Harshvardhan), and Sur dynasty. Bihar was the territorial part of Mughal dynasty and East India Company.