The Earth is covered by three-fourth of the water. 97.3% water is saline or salty in oceans and seas, 3% is fresh water that consists ice-cap, ground water, fresh water lakes, inland and salt lakes.
The term glacier can be defined as a large, perennial accumulation of crystalline ice, snow, rock, sediment, and often liquid water that originates on land and moves down slope under the influence of its own weight and gravity.
They are found at the South Pole and the North Pole of the Earth. Outside the polar region, glaciers are found mainly in high altitude mountain ranges of Asia, America (North and South) and Europe.
Longest Glaciers outside Polar Region
1. Fedchenko Glacier
Location: Yazgulem Range, Pamir Mountains, of north-central Gorno-Badakhshan province, Tajikistan
Length (in km): 77.00
2. Siachen Glacier
Location: Eastern Karakoram Range in the Himalayas (India/Pakistan)
Length (in km): 76.00
3. Biafo Glacier
Location: Karakoram Mountains of Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan-administrated Kashmir
Length (in km): 67.00
4. Bruggen Glacier
Length (in km): 66
5. Baltoro Glacier
Location: Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan
Length (in km): 63
6. Engilchek Glacier
Location: Central Tian Shan Mountains of Issyk-Kul Region, north-eastern Kyrgyzstan
Length (in km): 60.50
7. Batura Glacier
Location: Gojal region of Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan
Length (in km): 57
8. Mingyong Glacier
Location: Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China
Length (in m): 6,740
9. Furtwangler Glacier
Location: Near the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania
Area: 113,000 square metres
10. Jostedalsbreen Glacier
Location: Sogn og Fjordane in Western Norway
Length (in km): 60
Glaciers and Climate Change
The climate on the Earth has changed throughout history. Glaciers are very sensitive to temperature variations. The phenomena like Global Warming and Global Dimming changing the Earth's climate. Many scientists pointed out that the glaciers have reduced in size by melting due to climate change.
The variation of climate will not only affect the glaciers, but also human life. If glaciers melt, then the human living in the low-lying areas will be at high risk due to floods and tsunami. Hence, we can say that the climate change affects the entire landforms on the Earth.