Music in Medieval period: Persian influence
Medieval period: Persian influence
During the Mughal rule in India, Indian Classical music emerged as two separate traditions - North Indian Hindustani and the south Indian Carnatic, mainly because of the Islamic influence. The Hindustani system may be thought as a mixture of traditional Indian musical concepts and Persian performance practice. Many new musical forms like Khayal and Ghazal.
The advent of Islamic rule under the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire over northern India caused considerable cultural interchange. Increasingly, musicians received patronage in the courts of the new rulers, who in their turn, started taking increasing interest in local music forms. While the initial generations may have been rooted in cultural traditions outside India, they gradually adopted many aspects from their kingdoms which retained the traditional Hindu culture. This helped spur the fusion of Hindu and Muslim ideas to bring forth new forms of musical synthesis like qawwali and khyal.
The most influential musician of the Delhi Sultanate period was Amir Khusrau (1253–1325), sometimes called the father of modern Hindustani classical music. A composer in Persian, Turkish, Arabic, as well as Braj Bhasha, he is credited with systematizing many aspects of Hindustani music, and also introducing several ragas such as Yaman Kalyan, Zeelaf and Sarpada. He created the qawwali genre, which fuses Persian melody and beat on a dhrupad like structure. A number of instruments (such as the sitar and tabla) were also introduced in his time.
Amir Khusrau is sometimes credited with the origins of the khyal form, but the record of his compositions do not appear to support this. The compositions by the court musician Sadarang in the court of Muhammad Shah bear a closer affinity to the modern khyal. They suggest that while khyal already existed in some form, Sadarang may have been the father of modern khyal.
Persian music influenced in India
Persian music influenced in India Persian music is the music of Persia and Persian language countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and muzik, the sound and performance of music. Many Ustads, or professional musicians, have learned North Indian classical music in India, and some of them were Indian descendants who moved from India to the royal court in and they use the Hindustani musical theories and terminology, for example raga (melodic form) and tala (rhythmic cycle).