World's fastest sinking city -Jakarta: Know why is Indonesia's capital sinking and how to mitigate urban floods here
Why in News?
Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia is sinking bit by bit every year. The city has faced many urban floods too in the recent decade. In the article we would be discussing the reasons of flash floods and about Jakarta here.
Why is Jakarta called the Sinking City?
- North Jakarta is expected to submerge under water up to 95% by the end of 2050.
- North Jakarta has already sunk 2.5 metres in recent 10 years and would continue to sink by almost 25 centimetres every year in various parts.
- This is double the global average for coastal mega cities of the world.
- It is sinking by an average of 1-15 cm per year with almost half the city submerged under the sea.
- Take a look below to locate Jakarta in the map.
Reasons behind the sinking of Jakarta:
- The major reason for the sinking of Jakarta is claimed to be excessive extraction of groundwater. Jakarta has low water levels for drinking, bathing and other everyday purposes.
- Piped water is also not available in most areas so the citizens have to resort to pump water from aquifers that are deep underground. This is the reason due to which the land sinks or subsides. The effect is as if the land is sitting on a deflated balloon.
- Moreover there is socioeconomic development that is urbanization and population growth, increased demand for ground water and reliance on it. This leads to increased flood risks, damage to infrastructure and loss of life ultimately.
- The other reason is climate change , which means accelerated sea levels rise in extreme weather events breaking the embankments and causing floods.
- Poor Planning of the city is also one of the major reasons of sinking of the city of Jakarta
- The economic development has worsened the effect of subsidence. The impact of subsidence due to groundwater extraction is greater when populations tend to increase in low lying areas. Indonesia's population has been up by 35% from 1990 till now.
Causes of General Urban Floods
- Climate Change: This is one of the major reasons that causes increase in sea levels and increase in rains which causes floods
- The construction of roads is from concrete which causes low seepage of groundwater and floods in the cities.
- Growth of urban population has increased the population which in turn has increased the resources demand and climate change will supply more variables. This would lead to further exploitation of groundwater.
Urban Floods: Ways to mitigate
The floods can be mitigated by plantations of mangroves in these areas of coastal plains. Mangroves are said to bind the land and hold water in the ground planted on. They have dense tangle of prop roots that make the trees appear to be standing on stilts above the water. Moreover, climate change must be controlled by controlling global warming. This would lead to controlled weather changes and rainfall. The better planning of the cities avoiding concentration near the resources can also be one of the solutions of controlled urban floods.